Population growth by country What are the most populous countries in the world? Over the last century, the world has seen rapid population growth. But how are populations distributed across the world? Which countries have the most people? In the map we see the estimated population of each country in 2019. Here we see that the top five most populous countries are: (1) China (1.42 billion) (2) India (1.37 billion) (3) United States (329 million) (4) Indonesia (269 million) (5) Brazil (212 million) For several centuries, China has been the world’s most populous country. But not for long: it’s expected that India will overtake China within the next decade.