Hi, I’m John Green, this is Crash Course
World History, and today we’re going to do some legitimate comp. civ., for those of
you into that kind of thing. Stan, I can’t help but feel that we have perhaps too many
globes. That’s better. Today we’re going to learn about the horrible
totalitarian Persians and the saintly, democracy-loving Greeks. But of course we already know this
story — there were some wars in which no one wore any shirts, and everyone was reasonably
fit. The Persians were bad; the Greeks were good. Socrates and Plato were awesome; the
Persians didn’t even philosophize. The West is the Best; Go Team! Yeah, well, no. [theme music] Let’s start with the Persian empire, which
became the model for pretty much all land-based empires throughout the world. Except for — wait
for it — the Mongols. [Mongoltage] Much of what we know about the Persians and
their empire comes from an outsider writing about them, which is something we now call
history, and one of the first true historians was Herodotus, whose famous book The Persian
Wars talks about the Persians quite a bit. Now the fact that Herodotus was a Greek is
important because it introduces us to the idea of historical bias. But more on that
in a second. So the Persian Achaemenid dynasty… Achaemenid?
Hold on… HowJSay: AkEEmenid or AkEHmenid They’re both right? I was right twice!? Right, so the Persian AkEEmenid or AkEHmenid
dynasty was founded in 539 BCE by King Cyrus the Great. Cyrus took his nomadic warriors
and conquered most of Mesopotamia, including the Babylonians, which ended a sad period
in Jewish history called The Babylonian Exile, thus ensuring that Cyrus got great press in
the Bible. But his son, Darius the First, was even greater,
he extended Persian control east to our old friend the Indus Valley, west to our new friend
Egypt, and north to Crash Course newcomer Anatolia. By the way, there were Greeks in Anatolia
called Ionian Greeks who will become relevant shortly. So even if you weren’t Persian, the Persian
Empire was pretty dreamy. For one thing, the Persians ruled with a light touch, like, conquered
kingdoms were allowed to keep their kings and their elites as long as they pledged allegiance
to the Persian King and paid taxes, which is why the Persian king was known as The King
of Kings. Plus, taxes weren’t too high, and the Persians
improved infrastructure with better roads and they had this pony express-like mail service
of which Herodotus said: “…they are stayed neither by snow nor rain nor heat nor darkness from
accomplishing their appointed course with all speed.” And the Persians embraced freedom of religion.
Like they were Zoroastrian, which has a claim to being the world’s first monotheistic
religion. It was really Zoroastrianism that introduced to the good/evil dualism we all
know so well. You know: god and Satan, or Harry and Voldemort… But the Persians weren’t
very concerned about converting people of the empire to their faith. Plus, Zoroastrianism
forbid slavery, and so slavery was almost unheard of in the Persian Empire. All in all, if you had to live in the 5th
century BCE, the Persian Empire was probably the best place to do it. Unless, that is,
you believe Herodotus and the Greeks. We all know about the Greeks: architecture, philosophy,
literature. The very word music comes from Greek, as does so much else in contemporary
culture. Greek poets and mathematicians playwrights and architects and philosophers founded a
culture we still identify with. And they introduced us to many ideas, from democracy to fart jokes. And the Greeks gave the west our first dedicated history,
they gave us our vocabulary for talking about politics. Plus they gifted us our idealization of democracy,
which comes from the government they had in Athens. Past John: Mr. Green, Mr. Green, Mr. Green,
Mr. Green — did you say fart jokes? Present John: Uhh. You don’t ask about Doric,
Ionian, or Corinthian columns. You don’t ask about Plato’s allegory of the cave.
It’s all scatological humor with you — It’s time for the open letter? Really? Already?
Alright. An open letter [the whoopee cushion sounds]…
Stan! To Aristophanes. Dear Aristophanes… Oh right, I have to check the secret compartment.
Stan, what… oh. Thank you, Stan. It’s fake dog poo. How thoughtful. So, good news and bad news, Aristophanes. 2,300 years after your death — this is the
good news — you’re still a reasonably famous. Only eleven of your forty plays survived,
but even so, you’re called the Father of Comedy; there are scholars devoted to your
work. Now, the bad news: Even though your plays
are well-translated and absolutely hilarious, students don’t like to read them in schools.
There always like, why do we gotta read this boring crap? And this must be particularly
galling to you, because so much of what you did in your career was make fun of boring
crap, specifically in the form of theatrical tragedies. Plus, you frequently used actual
crap to make jokes. Such as when you had the chorus in The Acharnians imagining a character
in your play throwing crap at a real poet you didn’t like. You, Aristophanes, who wrote that under every
stone lurks a politician, who called wealth the most excellent of all the gods… You,
who are responsible for the following conversation: “Praxagora: I want all to have a share of
everything and everything to be in common; there will no longer be either rich or poor;
[…] I shall begin by making land, money, everything that is private property, common
to all. […] Blepyrus: But who will till the soil? Praxagora: The slaves. Blepyrus: Oh.” And yet you’re seen as homework! Drudgery!
That, my friend, is a true tragedy. On the upside, we did take care of slavery. It only
took us two thousand years. Best wishes,
John Green When we think about the high point of Greek
culture, exemplified by the Parthenon and the plays of Aeschylus, what we’re really
thinking about is Athens in the fourth century BCE, right after the Persian Wars. But Greece
was way more than Athens; Greeks lived in city-states which consisted of a city and
its surrounding area. Most of these city-states featured at least some form of slavery, and in all
of them citizenship was limited to males. Sorry ladies… Also, each of the city-states had its own
form of government, ranging from very democratic — unless you were a woman or a slave — to
completely dictatorial. And the people who lived in these cities considered themselves
citizens of that city, not of anything that would ever be called Greece. At least until
the Persian wars. So between 490 and 480 BCE, the Persians made
war on the Greek City states. This was the war that featured the battle of Thermopylae
where three hundred brave Spartans battled — if you believe Herodotus — five million
Persians. And also the battle of Marathon, which is
a plain about 26.2 miles away from Athens. The whole war started because Athens supported
those aforementioned Ionian Greeks when they were rebelling in Anatolia against the Persians.
That made the Persian king Xerxes mad, so he led two major campaigns against the Athenians,
and the Athenians enlisted the help of all the other Greek city-states. And in the wake
of that shared Greek victory, the Greeks began to see themselves as Greeks, rather than as
Spartans, or Athenians or whatever. And then Athens emerged as the de facto capital
of Greece and then got to experience a Golden Age, which is something that historians make
up. But a lot of great things did happen during the Golden Age, including the Parthenon, a
temple that became a church and then a mosque and then an armory until finally settling
into its current gig as a ruin. You also had statesmen like Pericles, whose
famous funeral oration brags about the golden democracy of Athens with rhetoric that wouldn’t
sound out of place today. “If we look to the laws, they afford equal justice to all
in their private differences… if a man is able to serve the state, he is not hindered
by the obscurity of his condition.” When you combine that high-minded rhetoric
with the undeniable power and beauty of the art and philosophy that was created in ancient
Athens, it’s not hard to see it as the foundation of Western civilization. And if you buy into
this, you have to be glad that the Greeks won the Persian Wars. But even if you put
aside the slavery and other injustices in Greek society, there’s still trouble. Do I have to say it, seriously? FINE. TROUBLE
PELOPONNESE. Pericles’s funeral oration comes from a
later war, The Peloponnesian War, a thirty year conflict between the Athenians and the
Spartans. The Spartans did not embrace democracy but instead embraced a kingship that functioned
only because of a huge class of brutally mistreated slaves. But to be clear, the war was not about
Athens trying to get Sparta to embrace democratic reform; wars rarely are. It was about resources
and power. And the Athenians were hardly saintly in all of this, as evidenced by the famous
Melian Dialogue. Let’s go to the Thought Bubble. So in one of the most famous passages of Thucydides’
history of the Peloponnesian War, the Athenians sailed to the island of Melos, a Spartan colony,
and demanded that the Melians submit to Athenian rule. The Melians pointed out that they’d
never actually fought with the Spartans and were like, “Listen, if it’s all the same
to you, we’d like to go Switzerland on this one,” except of course they didn’t say
that because there was no Switzerland. To which the Athenians responded, and here
I am quoting directly, “The strong do what they can, and the weak suffer what they must.” Needless to say, this is not a terribly democratic
or enlightened position to take. This statement, in fact, is sometimes seen as the first explicit
endorsement of the so-called theory of Realism in international relations. For realists,
interaction between nations, or peoples, or cultures is all about who has the power. Whoever
has it can compel whoever doesn’t have it to do pretty much anything. So what did the meritocratic and democratic
Athenians do when the Melians politely asked not to participate in the fight? They killed all the
Melian men and enslaved all the women and children. So, yes, Socrates gave us his interrogative
Method; Sophocles gave us Oedipus; but the legacy of Ancient Greece is profoundly ambiguous,
all the moreso because the final winner of the Peloponnesian War were the dictatorial Spartans.
Thanks for the incredible bummer, Thought Bubble. So here’s a non-rhetorical question: Did
the right side win the Persian wars? Most classicists and defenders of the Western
Tradition will tell you that of course we should be glad the Greeks won. After all,
winning the Persian war set off the cultural flourishing that gave us the Classical Age.
And plus, if the Persians had won with their monarchy that might have strangled democracy
in its crib and given us more one-man rule. And that’s possible, but as a counter that
argument, let’s consider three things: First, it’s worth remembering that life
under the Persians was pretty good, and if you look at the last five thousand years of
human history, you’ll find a lot more successful and stable empires than you will democracies. Second, life under the Athenians wasn’t
so awesome, particularly if you were a woman or a slave, and their government was notoriously
corrupt. And ultimately the Athenian government derived its power not from its citizens, but
from the imperialist belief that Might Makes Right. It’s true that Athens gave us Socrates,
but let me remind you, they also killed him. Well, I mean they forced him to commit suicide.
Whatever, Herodotus, you’re not the only one here who can engage in historical bias. And lastly, under Persian rule the Greeks
might have avoided the Peloponnesian War, which ended up weakening the Greek city-states
so much that Alexander “Coming Soon” the Great’s father was able to conquer all of
them, and then there were a bunch of bloody wars with the Persians and all kinds of horrible
things, and Greece wouldn’t glimpse democracy again for two millennia. All of which might
have been avoided if they’d just let themselves get beaten by the Persians. All of which forces us to return to the core
question of human history: What’s the point of being alive? I’ve got good news for you,
guy. You’re only going to have to worry about it for about 8 more seconds. Should
we try to ensure the longest, healthiest, and most productive lives for humans? If so,
it’s easy to argue that Greece should have lost the Persian Wars. But perhaps lives are
to be lived in pursuit of some great ideal worth sacrificing endlessly for. And if so,
maybe the glory of Athens still shines, however dimly. Those are the real questions of history: What’s
the point of being alive? How should we organize ourselves, what should we seek from this life?
Those aren’t easy questions, but we’ll take another crack at them next week when
we talk about the Buddha. I’ll see you then. Crash Course is produced and directed by Stan
Muller, our script supervisor is Danica Johnson, the graphics team is Thought Bubble, and the
show is written by my high school history teacher Raoul Meyer and me. Our phrase of the week last week was “Un mot
de français”. If you’d like to guess this week’s phrase of the week you can do so
in comments. You can also ask questions about today’s video in comments where our team
of historians will attempt to answer them. Thanks for watching, and Don’t Forget To Be

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100 thoughts on “The Persians & Greeks: Crash Course World History #5”

  1. At university I noticed the persians, the greeks and turkish students naturally were pulled towards each other and they felt closeness and at home with one another.

  2. For my test I have to memorize the Ancient Greek map and I noticed that at 5:14 they labeled Athens in the wrong place on the map. They put it at the bottom of Peloponnese when it should actually be at the bottom of Attica(to the right of Argos). Just something I thought was interesting.

  3. 1:36 dariush the first was not kurush's (cyrus's) son, he had two sons and the older one Cambyses 2 was emperor after him, then dariush came to power by usurping bardiya the second son of cyros, darius said that he was an impostor and not the real bardiya because the real bardiya had been assassinated on Cambyses's order.

  4. Do u honestly think you're funny? You come off as fake. The guy hosting the mythologies is funny and authentic. He actually thinks the jokes are funny therefore he has fun. You have no timing or heart for this art. You can memorize and recite. Who you fooling? Why do you think YOU should be a host instead of someone else? Have you asked yourself that? I want to learn but I end up annoyed to death. And you're impressions are superficial. You either have no background or lack imagination. Please un-host yourself because I like Crash Course. I don't like you

  5. Let's me see if l got you right The Greeks should have lost to the Persians because if they did they could have avoided the Peloponnesian war that weakened the Greek states, allowed Al "the Gs' dad to take over and may have put off democracy for another 200 years. Lets think about that for a minute

  6. To say that the Persians band slavery is so inaccurate. We’re just gonna forget the Eritrean Genocide in the province of Euboea!. They weren’t monsters no. But they were in a way no better than the Mongols

  7. Just kinda wondering after the Greeks were taken over by the Byzantine Empire we never hear about them again kinda wonder what went on

  8. got an almost full period presentation due tomorrow that my teacher gave me exactly one week to create 😜😜😜😜

  9. The son of Cyrus the great was…not Darius I…..his son was Cambyses II. Thats what I am seeing listed…Darius was his son in law and was king a little later.

  10. Been playing Assassin’s Creed Odyssey lately and I appreciate the historical context you provided! I thought the Athenians might’ve been the good guys, but you should be that NEITHER side was good! lol

  11. “All the bad things that happened to Greece after their war with the Persians could have been avoided if they lost and Greece wasn’t even a thing!” Smh

  12. Good video, just Music you spelled TOTALLY wrong. It is ΜΟΥΣΙΚΗ .
    I hope you search for the rest of the video was more correct !
    Then I watch more of your video, and I see that you tend to judge the ancient Greeks with today's standards . i know this is your channel, and you have the right to see things your way, but i am glad this is NOT the accepted History.
    Thank God( or the gods) for the victory of the Greeks over the Persians, since it opened the floodgates of Free Thought and Value of the Individual.

  13. He is wrong, Spartan women were equal and had the vote and a big say in many things. I found the whole video very biased with a very poor put down of what Greeks actually achieved.

  14. 0:45 even Mongols were not the exceptions here. They learnt from Persians how to rule their vast empire, as far as I researched. 😉

  15. Hey just so you know, that clip at 2:55 where you flash the Greek word for music is wrong 😂 You wrote "mopsfki."
    Signed, a Greek

  16. I'm cramming for my exams tomorrow and have been working on three hours of sleep because I need to take my JLPT proficiency test and forgot I had 2000 word history essay!!!

  17. Persian language is one of the oldest living languages. Persian literature is one of the world's oldest literature. The Persian literature described as one of the great literatures of humanity, and it is one of the four main bodies of world literature. Many great philosophers, poets, and scientists were inspired and influenced by the Persian language and literature, like Goethe (the Great German writer and statesman, is one of the four pillars of European literature. Goethe was fascinated by the Persian poet " Hafez ", who wrote his poetry collection the West-östlicher Diwan as a tribute to Hafez and his style.), Friedrich Nietzsche (he was interested in Hafez's poems.), Ralph Waldo Emerson, Matthew Arnold, Jorge Luis Borges, Sadi Carnot, Mark Twain, T. S. Eliot, Ernest Renan, Armand Renaud, André Gide, Edward FitzGerald, Christopher Hitchens, Abraham Lincoln, Théophile Gautier, Jean Chapelain, Richard N. Frye, Martin Luther King, Maurice Boucher, Henri Cazalis, Thoreau, and many others.

    For centuries, Iran (Persia) has been producing some of the world’s most influential and inspiring poets, whose works revolutionized the literature of both the East and the West. Spanning themes of love, divine mysticism, and human rights, their poetry is an incredible contribution to Persian culture and remains entirely relevant today. Every poet a different path and the Persian language helps this creativity. The Persian language is one of the most poetic, mystic and spiritual language in the world.

    The great Persian (Iranian) Poets: Khayyam, Ferdowsi, Hafez, Saadi, Attar, etc, are well known in the West and have influenced the literature of many countries. Khayyam was the Great Persian mathematician, astronomer, and poet. The Persian calendar is the most accurate calendar of the world and it was made by Khayyam. The Persian calendar became the official national calendar of Iran. The Persian calendar is more accurate than the Gregorian calendar.

    By the 1880s, Khayyam was extremely well known throughout the English-speaking world, to the extent of the formation of numerous "Khayyam Clubs" and a "fin de siecle cult of the Rubaiyat" Khayyam's poems have been translated into many languages. The asteroid was named "Khayyam" in 1980. The planet 3095 Khayyam was named in his honor in 1980 and the lunar crater Khayyam was named in his honor in 1970 as well. One of the holes in the moon was named in honor of "Khayyam".

    " Shahnameh ( The Epic of Kings ) by Ferdowsi, the greatest Persian (Iranian) poet is the world's longest epic poem created by a single poet and the national epic of Iran ( Persia ).

    The epic masterpiece itself is a treasure trove of drama and conflict consisting of sixty thousand verses, and paints an exquisitely rich tapestry of Iranian Heroes and Villains and Devils that, ultimately are deeply universal stories which continue to resonate even today, a thousand years later. These tales and characters can be compared to characters and stories in modern entertainment such as Game of Thrones, Lord of the Rings, and even Star Wars.

    Ferdowsi in the Shahnameh spans the history of Persia from mythical times until the Sassanid period in the 7th century, telling the tales of heroic blacksmiths, despotic rulers, and wicked demons who form the currents of good and evil which run throughout human history. Through his complex characters, Ferdowsi demonstrates the capacity for lightness and darkness and for happiness and unhappiness, in every being, encouraging his readers to actively take the side of good.

  18. Rhazes ( Zakariya Razi ), was a Persian (Iranian) polymath, physician, alchemist, philosopher, and important figure in the history of medicine and he was born in the ancient city of Rey, near Tehran, the capital of Iran (Persia). Rhazes discovered alcohol and sulfuric acid. He classified substances like plants, organic, and inorganic. Rhazes ( Zakariyya Razi ) who is credited with the discovery of ethanol. Many scholars consider Rhazes the greatest medical doctor of the Middle Ages. He is considered the father of psychology and psychotherapy.

    Rhazes contributed in many ways to the early practice of pharmacy by compiling texts, in which he introduces the use of "mercurial ointments" and his development of apparatus such as mortars, flasks, spatulas, and phials, which were used in pharmacies until the early twentieth century." He was the father of pediatrics and also first to categorize the Hospital dept as well.

  19. Many things in this world are invented by Persians (Iranians) like post system, fork, spoons, high heel shoes, qanat, polo and many different invents. Iranians were the first to domesticate animals, and also the first to mount on a horse. The first calendar, composed of a year with 354 days, was invented in Iran (Persia). The wheel, as a sophisticated component, originated in Iran.
    Persians (Iranians) were the first civilizations to reject slavery as a method of expansion. There are some Persian words from ancient times in the English language like Paradise, Magic, Bazaar, etc.

    An ancient type of evaporative cooler and refrigerator was in Iran ( Persia). The world's oldest animation was in Iran. A human skull which indicates the practice of Brain Surgery in Iran, 3,500 BC. The earliest example of an artificial eyeball in Iran, and 10-centimeter (3.937-inch) ruler, accurate to half a millimeter, 3,500 BC, etc, etc. Persians (Iranians) invented Ice Cream. The cultivation of various fragrant flowers for obtaining perfumes, including rose water, date back to Sassanid Persia, where it was known as Golab, from gul (flower) and ab (water), Rose water. The term was adopted into Byzantine Greek as zoulapin.
    The first practical windmills for the first time in the history of the world in Iran (Persia).

    Persians ( Iranians ) in 500 BC, had special knives to serve fruit with and used gold forks and spoons and special gold cups at their dinner tables. " Spoons for dining dated to the 500 BC (at the time of the Achaemenid dynasty) or earlier have been discovered in ancient Pasargadae, southwest Iran ( Persia ) (currently housed at the National Museum of Iran). The cutlery discovered in Pasargadae appears to pre-date the Greco-Roman cutlery by almost 1000 years.

    Cyrus the Great of Iran wrote the first Human Rights Charter and is considered a man ahead of his time, as he also established many other honorable aspects of Persian society. United Nations even uses the Cyrus Cylinder as a pillar of one the earliest declaration of human rights. The first time that a canal was built to connect two seawaters was by Iranians (Persians), who built the "Xerxes' canal", near Greece. The first divinely revealed religion which still exists today is Zoroastrianism. No other religion has influenced other world Religions like Zoroastrianism. It has influenced Judaism, Christianity, Islam, Buddhism, and many others. The first time that cake was used in a birthday party was by King Darius the Great of Persia. The art of tile-work was invented and perfected in Iran (Persia). " etc, etc.

    In the Persian empire, in Persepolis palace female workers even had paid maternity leave. The Persians were also known for having women take part in high governmental positions such as in Construction, Administration, Politics, etc as evident by the record-keeping clay tablets throughout Persepolis. This is something that would not be seen until at least many centuries after.

    Persian language is one of the oldest living languages. Persian literature is one of the world's oldest literature. The Persian literature described as one of the great literatures of humanity, and it is one of the four main bodies of world literature. Many great philosophers, poets, and scientists were inspired and influenced by the Persian language and literature.

  20. The history of Iran (Persia) starting from the Elam civilization, the Jiroft civilization, the Susa civilization, etc, 6,000 BC, not the Medes. Jean Perrot, the well-known French archaeologist, and historian, the grand old man of Middle Eastern archeology " Henceforth, we must consider Jiroft in Iran as the origin of civilizations and refer to all other civilizations as pre or post-Jiroft civilization. Iran had a far greater influence on Mesopotamian culture "

    " Jean Perrot, the well-known French archeologist who as the director of French National Centre for Scientific Research (CNRS) had conducted excavations in Susa ( an ancient city of the Elamite empires in Iran) area between 1969 and1978. And in Mesopotamia as well". Iran (Persia) is the cradle of civilization and the oldest country in the world. Persia ( Iran ) history
    1. Jiroft civilization ( Iranian ), dating back to 6,000-5,000 BC
    2. Susa civilization ( Iranian ), dating back to 6,000-5,000 BC.
    3. Shahr-e Sukhteh civilization ( Iranian ), dating back to 5,000-3,500 BC
    4. Elam civilization ( Iranian ), dating back to 3400–539 BC
    5. Median ( Iranian ) Empire, 678–550 BC
    6. Persian Empire 550 BC- 330 BC
    Hellenic occupation 330-323 BC
    7. Seleucid Empire ( half Persian-half Hellenic ), official languages: Greek and Persian, 323-141 BC
    8. Parthian ( Iranian ) Empire 247 BC–224 AD
    9. Sasanian ( Persian ) Empire 224-651 AD
    Muslim occupation 651 AD
    10. Samanid ( Persian ) Empire, official language : Persian, 819 –999 AD
    Turk-Mongolian occupation
    11. Muzaffarids ( Persian ), official language : Persian, 1314–1393 AD
    12. Safavid Empire ( Iranian ), official language : Persian, 1501–1736 AD
    13. Zand ( Iranian ) Dynasty, official language : Persian, 1760–1794
    14. Pahlavi ( Iranian ) Dynasty, official language : Persian 1925–1979
    British – Russian occupation 1941-1946

  21. Love the pace, great video bit less factual than his other videos hope there will be one with more detail regarding the persian empire

  22. This kind of revisionism sickness me! After ages we come to the understanding that no culture is superior to another, now crash course wants to sell me the idea that, would have been so good if Atila didn't die and destroyed the Roman empire! Are we soo ashamed of who we are and how we came to be?

  23. This video is heavily biased against the Greeks even though it tries very hard to appear unbiased. There is clear evidence that Persian Empire also had slavery. Why spread misinformation?

  24. The literally only good thing about being a woman in ancient history is that you don’t get killed- just enslaved.
    And some people would rather die than be enslaved so it’s barely a plus…

  25. "But who will till the soil…." 'The slaves' We're SO close to being able to live in this sort of Utopian society because of advances in robotics. In 50 years, we'll either be in a position where no one needs a job and we live in the Star Trek like Utopia where we simply pursue our passions/ devolve into a decadent depravity ala WALL-E, OR we'll be in a position where we DO need jobs, but no one can get a job, because those darn robots comin' over here and stealin' all ter dagnab jabs.

  26. 2:38 I am persian myself but they only outlawed it in Parsa and Mesopotamia. It was officially outlawed in the entire empire but impossible to enforce. So they just enforced it within the main provinces

  27. As a Persian(Iranian), there's a lot that I'd like to talk about regarding this video, but there's something that I want to point out here, we Persians(Iranians) have never ever approved racism but we are extremely nationalist.

  28. 2 historical notes: 1) 09:09 The Persian Empire was spreading over many territories as well territories were Greek population was living (Ionian people) and the latter who didn't want to be under the Persian control rebelled against Persians with the help of the other Greek cities, then Persians – which by the way was an expanding empire at the time – got furious and tried to conquer all the greek city-states by attacking them in their homelands. This is very important for answering the question because it was an imperialistic war and it does make sense for the Greeks not to surrender especially while being attacked in their own lands. The argument that ancient Greeks were an imperialistic nation would be right only later on in history during the Hellenistic Period when Alexander the Great lived and with the help of the other Greek city-states spread over all Persian territory. 2) In 10:09 there is some misconseption, the decline of greek city-states after the end of the Peloponnesian Wars gave Alexander the Great and his father Philippos the opportunity to spread all over Persia WITH the help of the other Greek city-states after unifying them under the common cause because they were practically the same nation.. Besides, I see the point of this video that OK the West is not the best (to which I agree a lot – women, slaves were excluded), but what was the level of political rights in Persia? were they able to vote for their governors? women were included?

  29. Please let your selves be a part of a foreign empire and pay double taxes. What kind of argument is this? Your people revolted when you had to pay more taxes and yet we should've submitted? So dumb

  30. Zoroastrianism is not what the writers of the Judeo-CHRISTian HOLY Bible got the concept of good and evil from, that's an assumption. Similarities do not indicate a tree. Two different cultures can have similar concepts especially as simple and as core to human nature as good and evil is, who wouldn't wire about that? Besides the Torah got the message handed down person to person back from Adam's personal experience with The CREATOR of all things. Historians know their place and don't step over their boundaries with assumptions that are not certain to avoid putting history with their personal bias and beliefs. What if you went back in time and actually saw GOD ALMIGHTY in The Garden of Eden, you'd then say, wow I didn't know, I therefore messed up the story with my opinion instead of just covering what was written in a stand back methodology giving contrasts and evidences for and against then moving on.

  31. There is no script about Persian history that's written by themselves because in Arabs invasion all the Persian books were destroyed

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