What role will sector coupling play in the energy transition? Sector coupling will have a key role in the energy transition, due to the huge increase of renewables in electricity, we need to be able to use all the grids, especially the gas grid, to couple it with electricity. For example we can use flexibility on demand, flexibility in the production. If we take the example of flexibility on demand, we can use hybrid solutions in the end customer, who can switch from electricity to gas, depending, for example, on peak demand in the electricity sector or depending on the tariff. If the tariff is very high gas is available. We have huge infrastructures in all the country and if you put hybrid you can avoid investing too much in the electricity sector. How can we address the challenge of decarbonising heating? I think we are able for each source of heating to decarbonise this source. If we take the example of gas, we have a target of 10% of green gas in 2030, which is written in the French law, and we are confident that we can go above this target of 10% and we are working with the French Environmental Agency to address and to be able to have 100% green gas after 2050. Are there limits to the electrification of our society and can we fully electrify heating? In fact I think the limit is money. If you want you can electrify everything, you can also put more gas, you can put more fuel, because for each kind of energy you have solutions for energy efficiency and for decarbonisation. So the question is – what is the most efficient for all the country, for the cities and for the people? We do think that the best way for decarbonisation is to have a diversified mix and we have to take into account that at the time we speak we have already in place grids for electricity, grids for gas, grids for district heating, and the optimization to use this infrastructure in the most efficient way. How can we ensure the bridging of the energy transition is done in a way that does not end up with lock-in effects? First we have to have reasonable choices, we have to be flexible, we have to have local planning with the cities, with the regional councils, we have to know where we want to go. The question is if you invest in a grid now, this investment will still be in place in 2050. So the question is if it is efficient to invest now and you need to know what the direction is. So the regulation at European level, at national level, at local level is very important and we have to share with all the public sector in general, to share where we want to go and then we will avoid the lock-in effect. If you just leave the market alone and let it act without any regulation then you may have a lock-in effect, as it’s trendy to electrify everything and then you will understand that you have a lot of congestion on the network or you have increasing prices and we want to have something reliable and affordable.

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