>>Dr. Ketchum: Okay, so now we’re just going
to real briefly talk about long-term hormonal regulation in females. Okay, so in terms of
long-term regulation for reproductive function, just real simply, okay? At puberty we know
that we have an increase in estrogen, and that estrogen is responsible for secondary
sex characteristics. Then throughout the reproductive years estrogen levels remain high, and that
helps maintain those secondary sex characteristics. And then menopause occurs. So the exact age
of menopause, there is no exact age, but this is when the estrogen levels begin to fall
and you start to—women start to lose some of those secondary sex characteristics. They
start undergoing hot flashes, and this is when they’re also at an increased risk of
heart disease and osteoporosis. So that’s it on a long-term regulation of the female
reproductive system.

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