Voiceover:There are many
inequalities in a population, based on race and ethnicity. Just to get some
terminology out of the way, let’s figure out the difference
between race and ethnicity. Race is a socially-defined
category that is based on physical differences
between groups of people. Racial formation theory
looks at the social, economic and political forces that result in socially-constructed racial identity. Sometimes these differences
are real, but sometimes they are only perceived
or are defined by history. In the 1800s, if a person
in the United States had a black ancestor,
they could be considered black even if they appeared white. Honestly though, since all
humans are 99.9% identical, genetically, there really
isn’t enough wiggle room in human DNA for there to be
a genetic foundation for race. Yet, it is incredibly
important on a social level. Every culture places
a different importance on specific physical characteristics. For example, in the US, race is identified by broad categories of skin color, but hair color is considered unimportant. In South America, there are more specific categories of skin color. The Latin American race in
the US may be broken down into five, or even six, different categories of races in South America. Ethnicity is also socially defined, but, instead of using physical
characteristics, these groups are defined by a shared
language, religion, nationality, history or
some other cultural factor. Ethnic groups are less
statistically defined than racial groups, and the
definitions can change over time. Sometimes the ethnic
minority can even be absorbed into the majority after
a generation or two. A minority consists of
a group that makes up less than half the total population and is treated differently
because of some characteristic. In the 1900s, native-born
Americans did not consider Irish, Italian or Jewish
immigrants to be white, which actually resulted
in a discrimination against them and limited
where they could live. Discrimination is the unjust
treatment of a category of people simply because
they belong to that category. It often results from prejudice, which is when someone has
some preconceived opinion that isn’t based on reason or experience. Let’s get back to those immigrants. While the immigrants
weren’t considered white, the children of those
immigrants were considered white because they were culturally
American, so their skin color could be used to determine
their ethnic identity. As we begin to look at socially
defined groups of people, please keep in mind that what I’m saying doesn’t apply to everyone in that group. Just like the English language,
there are always exceptions. We need to be sure not to
stereotype everyone in a group. We can look at statistical
values for a group, but these are only guidelines,
trends to keep in mind as we look at the population as a whole. There are a lot of statistical differences between both different races
and different ethnicities. Racial differences especially
can cause some drastic events, such as genocide or population transfer, where a group is forcefully
moved from their territory, or inter-colonialism, where a
minority group is segregated and exploited, or assimilation, where the minority group is
absorbed into the majority. Pluralism, on the other
hand, actually encourages racial and ethnic variation in a society. Statistically, families,
education, income, birthrates and life expectancies all vary between racial and ethnic groups. There’s a wide-spread
disparity in health care between racial and ethnic groups as well. Many Americans simply can’t
afford basic health care, which then affects the
life span of these people. Statistically, minorities
tend to have shorter life span because of limited access to
health care, lower-income jobs that can have greater
dangers in the workplace, a higher prevalence of
toxins in the environment, as well as personal behaviors,
like drinking or poor diet. Throughout history, dominant groups have racialized minority groups. This means the dominant group ascribes some racial identity to
members of a minority group that they do not identify for themselves. You can see this in the labor
force in the United States. There’s a myth in the United States that everyone has equal
opportunities in life, including access to education. In reality, different races tend to be stereotyped for certain jobs. Minorities are expected
to have lower-paying jobs, while majorities are expected
to have higher-paying jobs. Asian Americans and whites,
overall, have more access to education than African
Americans or Latin Americans. What it usually comes down to is economic and cultural factors. The cost of education can
be too high for minorities, who statistically tend
to work lower-waged jobs. Perhaps culturally, for some
people, starting a family is more important than
continuing an education. This perpetuates the trend of
difficulties for minorities, but it isn’t just the
cultural differences. Our society is structured so that racial and economic subordination
develops and is sustained. In order to get a
higher-paying job, you need a good education, so when
education is not a priority, or isn’t available, or
when it is simply withheld because of discrimination,
the jobs available are unskilled or
semi-skilled low-paying jobs. An interesting discrimination
among different races and ethnicities is present in
the criminal justice system. While laws may not seem racist, the punishment for similar
offences vary drastically. For example, the punishment
for crack cocaine, which is less expensive and
used by low-income users, is much tougher than for powdered cocaine, which is much more expensive. This separates the rich from
the poor in the justice system, handing out tougher sentences
to low-income criminals, who, statistically, are minorities. There are also higher
unemployment and dropout rates for minorities, providing fewer
options, other than crime. If you look at the
percentage of people in jail who are minorities, it’s much
higher than the percentage of minorities who live
in the United States. These numbers don’t line up. Percentage wise, more minorities
are being incarcerated than their white counterparts.

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26 thoughts on “Demographic structure of society- race and ethnicity”

  1. Utter marxist propoganda of frankfurt school flavor! This politicing really has no place here on a medical channel.

  2. In sociology, a minority group is classified as such because they are disadvantaged. NOT because they are less than half of the population.

  3. "The Latin American race"!? It's unbelievable the amount of misleading information I find on the internet regarding race. Latinamerican it's not a race. Please review your facts.

  4. This is incorrect, race is not socially constructed and is primarily a biological definition. Ethnicity refers to characteristics which can be changed.

  5. This video explains why being "American" is now a qualifier for being a racist bigot! If only people would stop with this fake racism garbage and devlope decent children who are free thinkers and hard workers we would make America great again! Lol no pun intended.

  6. "Race" is the GENETIC ONLY defining quality of some subspecies. "Ethnicity" is a BELIEF in some combined CULTURAL and GENETIC association. There is no actual utility to the word, ethnicity, if it were only merely cultural, as this video is claiming. The reality is that many groups who define their group from within OR from without are those who tend to irrationally believe that there is an actual link to some 'ownership' to a distinct set of beliefs (a culture) based on that group. Often, the politics attempt NOT to remove segregate ethnic beliefs but to impose upon the rest of society to accept some STEREOTYPE that they PREFER but demand the negative ones as false. The problem is that you cannot accept the positive without the negative. The reality is that ANY ethnic definition is extremely discriminatory because those supporting these views (often on BOTH political extremes) actually agree to the faulty logic that some specific group OWNS a distinct set of behaviors.

    For instance, if you believe that our North American Natives justly OWN a 'right' to tobacco as a functioning part of their ancestor's culture, you are adapting a favored stereotype. While one is welcome to such a personal view, it is discriminatory IF you demand some special privileged law that preserves (conserves) such a stereotype in the name of ones' culture. Culture is 'art', not some genetic factor. Similarly, the negative stereotypes are obviously equally your right to hold; but if some LAW is imposed to discriminate against them, this is where the proof of how such thinking is severely flawed. ANY stereotype regarding creating laws to FAVOR some group implies that only 'favorable' views should be imposed with neglect to the unFAVORED views.

    We need to wise up and abandon laws that treat art or cultural views within law. Your American first amendment likely recognized this (regarding a major cultural factor, "religion"). This amendment should be amended to be much stricter to include no laws regarding culture nor ethnicity. Neither political extremes want this though.

    I live in Canada and am witnessing how our country is leading in attempting to enhance rather than defeat such stereotyping through our Constitution. It is one that installs a right of government to impose religious and/or cultural laws FOR specific groups. This still enables governments to also make laws AGAINST such groups. I'm totally disgusted with this mentality from all political persuasions. The only reason for such continued empowerment of this mental illness is that believers of ingroup ethnicities always have more power (as a strong religious-thinking 'cult') to finance the right for those PRESENTLY in power to their stereotype and the left for any other cult that is presently less empowered. But all you cults are destroying this world. The vast majority of people don't identify with any specific group but are being forced to take the political side which LEAST discriminates against them rather than to the ideals that those sides originally hold. The parties within all governments are being held hostage by the derangement of either the majority cult or the SET of all minority cults. For those on the left supporting Multicultural lawmaking, you are precisely dishonest because you are actually COLLECTIVE CONSERVATIVES. You only agree in the present to shake hands and feign agreement between the other minority cults IF and UNTIL you are sufficiently wealthy and powerful enough to replace the right-wing conservatives in present power.

  7. The fact that Whites, East and South Asians make more money on average than Blacks and Latinos is indicative that discrimination and in areas like education, career, etc. is not a racial issue/cause, but a social one. For this reason, African immigrants and their descendants and their descendants perform significantly better than that of African-Americans who have been in the US for longer periods of time.

  8. race2
    noun: race; plural noun: races
    each of the major divisions of humankind, having distinct physical characteristics.
    "people of all races, colors, and creeds"
    synonyms: ethnic group, racial type, origin, ethnic origin, color
    "students of many different races"
    a group of people sharing the same culture, history, language, etc.; an ethnic group.
    "we Scots were a bloodthirsty race then"
    synonyms: ethnic group, racial type, origin, ethnic origin, color More
    "students of many different races"
    people, nation
    "a bloodthirsty race"
    the fact or condition of belonging to a racial division or group; the qualities or characteristics associated with this.
    "people of mixed race"
    synonyms: ethnic group, racial type, origin, ethnic origin, color
    "students of many different races"
    a group or set of people or things with a common feature or features.
    "some male firefighters still regarded women as a race apart"
    a population within a species that is distinct in some way, especially a subspecies.
    "people have killed so many tigers that two races are probably extinct"
    (in nontechnical use) each of the major divisions of living creatures.
    "a member of the human race"
    a group of people descended from a common ancestor.
    "a prince of the race of Solomon"
    "two coursers of ethereal race"

  9. I stay out of arguments, fights, and disagreements involving people of the same race.They know what they are doing, they know what their roles are, they know what they're supposed to be doing, and they know who is truly right or wrong. I don't choose sides. I remain friends with all of them.

    (White girl using Chinese best guy friend's account)

  10. 1:48 Sorry that's wrong. Irish, Italians and Jews were never viewed as non-white, they were viewed as lower than English or Nordics but still white.

  11. Very interesting to read these very racist comments that completely disregard the points made (and questions that are answered) in this video. Good video! Love it.

  12. Race is a biological construct. Only a complete idiot will believe it's not real. How insane do you have to be to believe that all races are all the same?

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