SO WE HAVE AN ACTION PACKED HOUR
HERE AND WANT TO MAKE SURE WE GET READY.
PLEASE RAISE YOUR HAND IF YOU HAVE A SEAT NEXT TO YOU.
OKAY. WE HAVE A LOT OF — WE ACTUALLY
HAVE A VERY LARGE CROWD HERE TODAY.
WE HAVE ANOTHER PORTION OF PEOPLE JOINING US, I THINK, ON A
LIVE WEBCAST. BUT YOU PROBABLY DON’T WANT TO
STAND UP FOR THE ENTIRE 60 MINUTES.
SO FOR THOSE JUST STREAMING IN, FEEL FREE TO HAVE A SEAT
WHEREVER YOU WOULD LIKE. SO MY NAME IS WADE CROWFOOT, AND
I AM LUCKY ENOUGH TO LEAD THIS NATURAL RESOURCES AGENCY AND
EXCITED TO BE HERE TODAY ON ANOTHER ONE OF OUR INSTALLMENTS
OF WHAT WE’RE CALLING A SECRETARY SPEAKER
SERIES.THE NOTION OF THESE EVENTS —
AND FOLKS SHOULD FEEL FREE TO FILE IN AND GRAB A SEAT SO YOU
DON’T STAND UP THE WHOLE TIME. BUT THE NOTION OF THESE EVENTS
IS TO SPEND SOME TIME CONCENTRATING ON A PRIORITY AND
BRING SMART PEOPLE INTO THE AGENCY TO REALLY
LEAD A PUBLIC DIALOGUE ON THESE TOPICS.
WE’VE NOW DONE, I THINK, SIX OR SEVEN OF THEM, AND WE’RE REALLY
EXCITED TODAY TO DISCUSS WHAT’S HAPPENING IN THE SIERRA NEVADA,
BOTH THE CHALLENGES THAT THIS REGION FACES, BUT THEN THE
OPPORTUNITIES THAT WE HAVE IN OUR AGENCY AND
STATE GOVERNMENT WITH A BUNCH OF OTHER PARTNERS TO CONTINUE TO
STEWARD THE RESOURCE AND IMPROVE THINGS WITHIN THE SIERRA NEVADA
RANGE. I ALWAYS LOVE TO GIVE A POP QUIZ
AT THE BEGINNING OF THESE EVENTS.
RAISE YOUR HAND IF YOU LIVE IN THE SIERRA NEVADA OR HAVE LIVED
IN THE SIERRA NEVADA. ALL RIGHT.
WOW, A GOOD PORTION. RAISE YOUR HAND IF YOU WORK IN
THIS AGENCY. OKAY.
RAISE YOUR HAND IF YOU WORK IN ANOTHER STATE AGENCY.
OKAY. LOCAL OR REGIONAL AGENCY?
OKAY. LOCAL OR NON-GOVERNMENTAL
ORGANIZATION? GREAT.
ANYBODY HERE FROM THE LEGISLATURE OR LEGISLATIVE
STAFF. THANK YOU.
AND RAISE YOUR HAND IF YOU HAVE NO AFFILIATION BUT YOU JUST ARE
EXCITED ABOUT THE TOPIC. ALL RIGHT.
A FEW OF YOU, GREAT. SO WE’LL HEAR FROM THE EXPERTS,
BUT REALLY THE SIERRA NEVADA IS AN IMPORTANT PLACE, OBVIOUSLY,
STRETCHING 400 MILES, A QUARTER OF THE STATE’S LAND MASS, 60
PERCENT OF OUR STATE’S WATER SUPPLY COMES
OFF THE SIERRA NEVADA AS I’VE BEEN EDUCATED.
60% OF OUR NATURAL DIVERSITY OF PLANTS AND ANIMALS FROM THE
SIERRA NEVADA. AND A PLACE THAT GENERATES 50
MILLION VISITORS OR WELCOMES 50 MILLION VISITORS EVERY YEAR.
SO IT’S A CRITICALLY IMPORTANT PLACE FOR THE FUTURE OF
CALIFORNIA. REALLY EXCITED TO HAVE WITH US
FOUR EXPERTS TODAY, AND ANGIE AVERY, WHO LEADS OUR SIERRA
NEVADA CONSERVANCY.WHAT WE’LL DO IS
HEAR FROM EACH OF THESE PRESENTERS THAT WILL SHARE THEIR
PERSPECTIVE AND THEIR EXPERTISE ON THE SIERRA
NEVADA, AND THEN WE WILL HAVE TIME TO BRING THEM UP ON A PANEL
AND ASK THEM QUESTIONS.
WE HAVE SOME NEW ARRIVALS, SO RAISE YOUR HAND IF
YOU HAVE A SEAT NEXT TO YOU. DON’T BE SHY.
WE’RE ALL FRIENDS HERE. UNLESS YOU WANT TO STAND FOR THE
NEXT HOUR, FIND YOUR WAY INTO ONE OF THESE ROWS TO SIT DOWN.
SO WE ARE STARTING OFF WITH HUGH SAFFORD, WHO’S A REGIONAL FROM
THE U.S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
FOREST SERVICE SOUTHWEST REGION. THAT’S A MOUTHFUL.
HE HELPS MANAGE OUR FEDERAL FORESTS IN THE STATE OF
CALIFORNIA. SO WELCOME, HUGH.
[ APPLAUSE ] NEW SPEAKER: JUST BRING UP THE
NEXT ONE. THAT’S WADE.
THAT’S ME. I’VE GOT A COUPLE SLIDES TO
SHOW. THANKS FOR COMING.
SO I’VE BEEN ASKED TO TALK WITH YOU ABOUT CLIMATE CHANGE AND
IMPACTS ON SIERRA NEVADA ECOSYSTEMS.
I HAVE A LOT TO COVER. I’M GOING TO GO VERY QUICKLY.
INCREASING EMISSIONS OF GREENHOUSE GASES BY HUMANS ARE
MODIFYING THE EARTH’S CLIMATE. THE ATMOSPHERIC CONTENT OF
CARBON DIOXIDE IS AT ITS HIGHEST LEVEL IN MORE THAN 450,000 YEARS
AND CONTINUES TO RISE.
INCREASING TEMPERATURES IN CALIFORNIA OVER THE NEXT CENTURY
WILL CREATE CLIMATIC CONDITIONS THAT
ARE UNPRECEDENTED. CLIMATE CHANGE IS BY NO MEANS
THE ONLY STRESS AFFECTING OUR EKS, HOWEVER.
GROWING HUMAN POPULATIONS, GROWING ECONOMIES ARE
DRASTICALLY REDUCING THE EXTENT OF THE EARTH’S
NATURAL HABITATS, AND LAND USE CHANGES HAVE REDUCED HABITAT AND
LED TO HIGHLY DISCONNECTED LANDSCAPES
THAT ARE MAJOR BARRIERS TO DISPERSE ONE MIGRATION.
ECOLOGICAL RESPONSE TO CLIMATE AND LAND USE CHANGE IS FURTHER
COMPLICATED BY OTHER ANTHROPOGENETIC
STRESSORS, AIR AND WATER POLLUTION, AND ATMOSPHERIC
DEPOSITION. SO THE U.S. IS ACTUALLY WARMING
FASTER THAN ANY OTHER PLACE IN THE UNITED STATES.
IN THE SIERRA NEVADA MEAN ANNUAL TEMPERATURES HAVE INCREASED BY
AS MUCH AS 2 DEGREES, AND IN SOME
PLACES 2 1/2 DEGREES OVER THE LAST CENTURY.
FUTURE PROJECTIONS SUGGEST BY 2080 OR 2090, AVERAGES COULD BE
UP TO 10 DEGREES FAHRENHEIT WARMER.
SO IN OTHER WORDS, A TYPICAL DAILY HIGH IN SACRAMENTO FOR
JULY WILL BE 104 DEGREES, WHICH IS THE
CURRENT AVERAGE SUMMER HIGH FOR PHOENIX.
AT THE ELEVATION OF LAKE TAHOE, THE ANNUAL NUMBER OF DAYS WITH
BELOW FREEZING TEMPERATURES HAS DROPPED BY ONE-HALF SINCE 1910.
WHILE BELOW 3,000 FEET THERE’S BEEN A MAJOR INCREASE IN THE
NUMBER OF EXTREME HEAT DAYS. PRECIPITATION HAS BEEN STEADIER,
EVEN INCREASING ACROSS MUCH OF THE RANGE, BUT YEAR TO YEAR
VARIABILITY IN ANNUAL PRECIPITATION HAS ALSO BEEN
INCREASING AT MANY STATIONS, HIGHER HIGHS AND LOWER LOWS.
AND FUTURE PROJECTIONS SUGGEST FURTHER PRECIPITATION BUT EVEN
HIGHER THAN ANNUAL VARIABILITY. PROBABILITIES OF MULTI-ANNUAL
DROUGHTS AND EXTREME PRECIPITATION EVENTS.
AT HIGH ELEVATION, THE FORM OF PRECIPITATION FALLING AS SNOW AS
COMPARED WITH RAIN HAS FALLEN BY OVER 40% SINCE THE BEGINNING OF
THE 20th CENTURY. OVER THE LAST 50 YEARS, SPRING
SNOW PACK IS DOWN BY 40% TO 80% ACROSS MOST OF THE CENTRAL AND
NORTHERN SIERRA NEVADA, AND PROJECTIONS SUGGEST BY 2100 SNOW
IS GOING TO BE RARE OR NONEXISTENT BELOW
6,000 FEET ELEVATION, AND APRIL SNOW PACK IS BASICALLY GOING TO
DISAPPEAR AT ALL BUT THE HIGHEST ELEVATIONS.SIERRA NEVADA, AS
SECRETARY CROWFOOT JUST ALLUDED TO, IS THE SOURCE OF ABOUT
THREE-FIFTHS OF THE DEVELOPED WATER SUPPLY IN
CALIFORNIA. SNOW PACK AFFECTS ON WATER
STORAGE IN CALIFORNIA ARE GOING TO HAVE REPERCUSSIONS ACROSS THE
STATE. THE ONSET OF SPRING THAW AND
PEAK FLOW IN MAJOR STREAMS IN SIERRA NEVADA OCCUR 10 TO 14
DAYS EARLIER THAN IN THE 1940s.
SPRING FLOWS ARE HIGHER ON AVERAGE THAN 5% TO 25%.
AND LATE SPRING AND EARLY SUMMER FLOWS ARE DOWN BY SIMILAR
AMOUNTS. OVERALL SUMMER AND SPRING STREAM
FLOW IS DOWN MARKEDLY IN MOST STREAMS THAT HAVE BEEN STUDIED,
AND THOSE SAME STUDIES DEMONSTRATE
THIS IS DUE TO RISING WINTER AND SPRING TEMPERATURES AND DROPPING
SNOW PACK. OVER THE COURSE OF THE COMING
CENTURY, ANNUAL RUNOFF TOTALS ARE PROJECTED TO BE SIMILAR OR
EVEN POTENTIALLY GREATER IN SOME
CASES THAN HISTORICAL RUNOFF, BUT THE DISTRIBUTION OF FLOWS
WILL FURTHER DIVERGE FROM HISTORICAL NORMS.
LAST YEAR THE CALIFORNIA FORCE CLIMATE ASSESSMENT SUGGESTED
THAT BY THE LAST QUARTER OF THE CENTURY, WINTERTIME STREAM FLOWS
COULD BE UP TO 150% TO 200% GREATER THAN CURRENT DAY, BUT
SUMMER FLOWS ONLY 10% TO 50% OF WHAT THEY ARE
ON THE CURRENT DAY. BOTH MAJOR FLOODING EVENTS AND
DRY RIVER BEDS ARE PREDICTED TO BE MORE COMMON AS THE YEARS
PASS. THE IMPLICATIONS FOR AQUATIC
ECOSYSTEMS, BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY ARE, OF COURSE, PROFOUND.
DATA ON FORCED FIRE FREQUENCY, FIRE SIZE, TOTAL AREA BURNED AND
SEVERITY ALL SHOW INCREASES IN THE
SIERRA NEVADA OVER THE LAST THREE DECADES.
VARIABLES EXPLAIN INCREASINGLY MORE OF THE PATTERN IN FIRE
SIDES AND AREAS SINCE THE MIDDLE OF THE
20th CENTURY. THAT’S BECAUSE FUEL LIMITING IS
NO LONGER A FACTOR, WHICH IS LARGELY A FUNCTION OF FIRE
SUPPRESSION POLICIES.SINCE THE 1970s, FIRE
SEASON LENGTH HAS INCREASED BY 2 1/2 MONTHS, AND THE MEAN SIZE OF
ESCAPED FIRES HAS ABOUT DOUBLED IN THAT SAME PERIOD.
FOREST FIRE SEVERITY, WHICH IS A MEASURE ESSENTIALLY OF THE
BIOMASS LOST TO FIRE, IN LOW AND MIDDLE
ELEVATION FOREST, IS ALSO RISING STRONGLY WITH ABOUT TWICE AS
MUCH PROPORTIONAL AREA BURNING AND
SEVERITY INCREASING SINCE THE 1980s.
OVERALL TOTAL BURNED AREA IS RISING, BUT IT STILL FALLS SHORT
OF ANNUAL TOTALS BEFORE EURO-AMERICAN
SETTLEMENT.THE DIFFERENCE IN THE SIERRA NEVADA TODAY IS THE
REPLACEMENT OF VERY FREQUENT, MODERATELY
SIZED LOW SEVERITY FIRES WITH VERY INFREQUENT, LARGE SIZED,
HIGH SEVERITY, AND OFTEN DESTRUCTIVE
FIRES.FUTURE PROJECTIONS ALL SUGGEST MARKED INCREASES IN FIRE
FREQUENCY, FIRE SIZE, AND BURNED AREA IN
THE LONG TERM, AND IN FIRE SEVERITY IN THE MEDIUM TERM
UNTIL MUCH FOREST VEGETATION HAS BEEN BURNED
OFF AND FIRE SEVERITY DROPS DUE TO A REDUCTION IN WOODY FUELS. FIRE SUPPRESSION IN THE LEGACY
OF 19th AND 20th CENTURY LOGGING PRACTICES HAVE GREAT I. CHANGED
LOW AND MEDIUM FORESTS IN THE SIERRA
NEVADA. THESE HAVE LED TO DENSER, MORE
CONSISTENT STANDS, GREATER AND WOODY FUEL LOADS, SWITCH TO
DOMINANCE FOR TOLERANT SPECIES, AND HIGHER
COMPETITION FOR WATER. SUCH FORESTS ARE DROUGHT AND
FIRE SENSITIVE. THE SEVERITY OF THE 2012 TO 2016
CALIFORNIA DROUGHT WAS GREATLY RELATED TO STAND DENSITIES AND
WATER BALANCE. IN HIGHER ELEVATION FORESTS,
FIRE SUPPRESSION AND ECONOMIC USES HAVE HAD MUCH LESS IMPACT
ON FOREST STRUCTURE, BUT FOREST DENSITIES
ARE INCREASING ANYWAY DUE TO CLIMATE WARMING.
IN SUB-ALPINE FORESTS, CLIMATE CHANGE IS ACTUALLY MAKING
CONDITIONS EASIER FOR TREES IN TERMS OF
THE GROWING ENVIRONMENT, MEANING HIGHER SURVIVAL OF SMALL TREES,
INVASION OF SNOW FILLED AREAS, AND
GENERAL INCREASES IN FOREST DENSITY.
CLIMATE DRIVEN TREE MORTALITY HAS BEEN ON THE RISE IN THE
WESTERN U.S. IN RECENT DECADES. A RECENT USGS STUDY DOCUMENTED
THE HIGHEST MORTALITY RATES IN THE WESTERN U.S. WERE IN MIDDLE
ELEVATION FOREST IN THE SIERRA NEVADA, WITH PATTERNS DRIVEN BY
REGIONAL CLIMATE WARNING AND BY DROUGHT
STRESS.MORE RECENTLY, THE MOST SIGNIFICANT DROUGHT IN
CALIFORNIA IN MANY, MANY CENTURIES KILLED MORE
THAN 130 MILLION TREES IN THE SIERRA NEVADA.
VEGETATION CHANGE HAS ALSO BEEN WIDESPREAD IN THE SIERRA NEVADA
OVER THE LAST CENTURY, DRIVEN BY INTERACTIONS BETWEEN LAND USE,
FOREST AND FIRE MANAGEMENT PRACTICES, AND CLIMATE WARMING.
CURRENT TRENDS IN FUTURE PROJECTIONS INCORPORATING
CLIMATE CHANGE AND DISTURBANCE SUGGESTS THAT
GRASSLAND, SHRUB LAND, AND SMALL LEAF FORESTS WILL DOMINATE MOST
OF THE SIERRA NEVADA BY 2100. OVERALL CARBON SEQUESTRATION IN
WESTERN SIERRA NEVADA FORESTS TODAY IS PROBABLY SLIGHTLY
HIGHER THAN UNDER PRE-EURO SETTLEMENT
CONDITIONS, BUT THE CARBON POOL IS INCREASINGLY UNSTABLE.
THIS IS DUE TO THE LOSS OF LARGE TREES, WHICH ARE MORE RESILIENT
LONG TERM CARBON. AND INCREASES IN THE NUMBER OF
SMALL TREES, INCREASES IN FOREST DENSITY, AND INCREASES IN
COMPETITION FOR WATER. FUTURE PROJECTION SUGGESTS THAT
MORE THAN A QUARTER OF THE BIOMASS STORED IN SIERRA NEVADA
FORESTS TODAY WILL BE LOST TO
DISTURBANCES LIKE DROUGHT, FIRE, AND INSECT OUTBREAKS, AS WELL AS
LAND DEVELOPMENT, BY THE MIDDLE OF
THE CENTURY. EVEN HIGH ELEVATION FORESTS,
WHICH ARE CONSIDERED RELIABLE LONG TERM CARBON SINKS BY THE
CARBON FOREST PLAN ARE UNLIKELY TO STAY
THAT WAY IN MY OPINION, GIVEN INCREASING FOREST DENSITY, FUEL
CONTINUITY, RAPID WARMING AT HIGH ELEVATIONS AND INCREASING
TREND OF FIRE ACTIVITY AT HIGH ELEVATION IN THE
LAST DECADES. STUDIES COMPARING DISTRIBUTIONS
HAVE SHOWED GENERAL UPWARD MOVEMENT OF GEOGRAPHIC RANGES
THAT IS CONSISTENT WITH CLIMATE WARMING
TRENDS BUT ALSO INFLUENCED BY LANDSCAPE VEGETATION DYNAMICS
THAT ARE LARGELY THE RESULT OF CHANGES IN
FIRE REGIMES. SIMILAR TRENDS HAVE BEEN
OBSERVED FOR OTHER FAUNA, SUCH AS BUTTERFLIES AND BIRDS, WHERE
OVERALL POPULATIONS ARE MARKEDLY DOWN,
AND WHERE CHANGING DISTRIBUTIONS ARE STRONGLY LINKED TO CHANGES
IN TEMPERATURE AND PRECIPITATION.
IN CONTRAST, MAJOR WIDESPREAD LOSSES IN AMPHIBIAN POPULATIONS
HAVE OCCURRED AT ALL ELEVATIONS, AND
DRIVERS ARE NOT ONLY CLIMATIC BUT ALSO INCLUDE INTRODUCED
PREDATORS, FUNGAL PATHOGENS AND PESTICIDES.
I WANT TO NOTE AFTER ALL THAT BAD NEWS, THE TRENDS THAT I HAVE
DESCRIBED, THEY’RE NOT REALLY INEXORABLE.WE CAN DO THINGS TO
INFLUENCE THE OUTCOMES OF THESE TRENDS.
CHANGING THE PACE OF CLIMATE CHANGE IS A GLOBAL TASK, AND I
AM CANDIDLY VERY PROUD TO LIVE IN A
STATE THAT IS AN INTERNATIONAL LEADER IN CARBON EMISSION
MITIGATION. CHANGING THE SENSITIVITY OF
ECOSYSTEMS AND ECOSYSTEM SERVICES TO CLIMATE CHANGE IS
MORE OF A REGIONAL AND LOCAL TASK,
HOWEVER, AND ONE IN WHICH MULTIPLE STATE AGENCIES AND
THEIR PARTNERS ARE ENGAGED, INCLUDING A LOT OF YOU.
THE SPEAKERS FOLLOWING ME WILL OUTLINE HOW CALIFORNIANS ARE
RESPONDING TO CLIMATE CHANGE IN THE
SIERRA NEVADA WITH OPTIMISM AND HARD WORK IN THE FIELDS OF
BUSINESS, TOURISM, AND FOREST HEALTH.
THANK YOU. [ APPLAUSE ] NEW SPEAKER: WOW, I WOULD SAY
THANK YOU FOR THAT VERY THOROUGH FOUNDATIONS IT RELATES TO
CLIMATE CHANGE IMPACT ON THE SIERRA AND
ALARMING IN TERMS OF WHAT WE FACE.
GOOD TO HAVE THE SCIENTIFIC INFORMATION IN TERMS OF WHAT WE
CAN ANTICIPATE BUT ALSO A WAKEUP CALL.
IT’S A PERFECT WAY TO BEGIN THIS DISCUSSION ABOUT HOW WE HELP THE
SIERRA NEVADA BECOME RESILIENT. OUR NEXT SPEAKER IS STEVE
FRISCH, WHO LEADS THE SIERRA BUSINESS COUNCIL.
I’M PROUD TO SAY A LOT OF WHAT I LEARNED ABOUT PUBLIC POLICY IN
THE SIERRA NEVADA, I LEARNED FROM
STEVE.SO COME ON UP. [ APPLAUSE ] NEW SPEAKER: THANK YOU FOR THAT
KIND INTRODUCTION, MR. SECRETARY, AND THANK YOU ALL FOR
BEING HERE TODAY. MY NAME IS STEVE FRISCH.
I’M THE PRESIDENT OF THE SIERRA BUSINESS COUNCIL.
WE’RE A REGIONAL 501 C 3 ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT FOCUSED
ON THE SIERRA NEVADA. AND WE’RE THE SMALL BUSINESS
CENTER FOR NORTHERN CALIFORNIA AND THE SIERRA ECONOMIC
DEVELOPMENT DISTRICT FOR THE CENTRAL SIERRA
NEVADA REGION. WE’VE BEEN LOOKING AT ECONOMIC
AND SOCIAL TRENDS IN THE SIERRA NEVADA FOR THE LAST 25 YEARS.
ALTHOUGH HUGH IMPLIED THAT WE WERE GOING TO GET REALLY
POSITIVE AND ROSY HERE, I’M GOING TO START
WITH A LITTLE BIT OF JUST THE GRIM STATISTICS, FRANKLY, OF
WHERE WE’RE GOING IN RURAL REGIONS IN THE
STATE OF CALIFORNIA, WHICH I THINK EVERYONE REALLY NEEDS TO
KNOW. IN THE 23 COUNTY REGION WE
STUDY, THE TRENDS OVER THE LAST 20 YEARS ARE ESSENTIALLY FOR THE
EMERGENCE OF A HAVE AND HAVE NOT SOCIETY IN MANY OF THE RURAL
REGIONS. AVERAGE MEDIAN INCOME IN 11 OF
THOSE 23 COUNTIES HAS BEEN DROPPING FOR THE LAST 15 YEARS.
IT ACTUALLY DROPPED PRECIPITOUSLY AT THE GREAT
RECESSION BUT NEVER REALLY RECOVERED.
SO 25 YEARS AGO, IN THAT NORTHERN CALIFORNIA REGION, ON
AVERAGE, THE RESIDENTS EARNED ABOUT 82% OF
THE STATEWIDE AVERAGE MEDIAN INCOME.
THEY’RE NOW DOWN TO ABOUT 63%. SO THAT’S A PRETTY PRECIPITOUS
DROP OVER THAT 20 YEAR PERIOD. IN THAT REGION HOUSING BURDEN,
THAT IS THE COST OF HOUSING AS A PERCENTAGE OF INCOME, IN 11 OF
THOSE COUNTIES WAS ACTUALLY HIGHER IN LOS
ANGELES, SAN DIEGO. AND THE REASON WAS A HIGH
HOUSING COST, THE PERCENTAGE OF YOUR INCOME YOU’RE PAYING FOR
HOUSING IS MUCH HIGHER, WHICH REDUCED YOUR
DISPOSABLE INCOME THAT CAN BE USED FOR SOCIAL GOODS LIKE
EDUCATION, HEALTH CARE, AND OTHER THINGS.
IT’S AN ONGOING TREND IN RURAL REGIONS OF CALIFORNIA THAT IS
EXACERBATED IN THAT NORTHERN REGION.
SMALL BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT IN RURAL COUNTIES IN CALIFORNIA HAS
ACTUALLY SEEN A DECLINE OVER THE LAST 20 YEARS.
THE NUMBER OF SMALL BUSINESSES, THE AVERAGE INCOME OF SMALL
BUSINESSESBUSINESSES, AND THE AVERAGE
NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES IN SMALL BUSINESSES HAS DECLINED IN 16 OF
THOSE COUNTIES OVER THE LAST 20 YEARS.
THIS IS A REGION WHERE 90% OF THE PRIVATE SECTOR EMPLOYEES
WORK IN BUSINESSES WITH 10 EMPLOYEES OR
LESS.SO 2 GICHS YOU KIND OF A CONTEXT FOR WHAT THAT DECLINE IN
SMALL BUSINESS HEALTH AND VIABILITY
REALLY MEANS. A RECENT STUDY BY THE ROBERT
WOOD JOHNSON FOUNDATION ON HEALTH AND HEALTH ACHIEVEMENT IN
CALIFORNIA IDENTIFIED SEVEN OF THOSE
NORTHERN CALIFORNIA COUNTIES AS AMONGST THE TEN WORST IN
CALIFORNIA. THAT STUDY WAS RELEASED ABOUT A
WEEK AGO AND MADE HEADLINE NEWS IN THE SAN FRANCISCO CHRONICLE
FOR THE POINT THAT THREE OR FOUR OF
THE BAY AREA COUNTIES WERE ESSENTIALLY THE HEALTHIEST
COUNTIES IN CALIFORNIA.I WOULD ARGUE THAT
THE REAL STORY IS TOLD BY WHAT’S NOT IN THE HEADLINE AND WHAT
UNDERLIES THAT, THAT HEALTH AND ECONOMIC
ACHIEVEMENT ARE INTRICATELY LINKED, AND IF YOU’RE POOR IN
CALIFORNIA, YOU’RE MUCH MORE LIKELY TO BE UNHEALTHY, WHICH IS
SOMETHING THAT WE’RE SEEING AS A TREND ACROSS
RURAL REGIONS OF THE STATE. SO AS FAR AS VULNERABILITIES IN
THE SIERRA NEVADA ARE CONCERNED, WE’RE A RARE BUSINESS
ORGANIZATION IN THAT WE REALLY LOOK AT THE
TRIPLE BOTTOM LINE OUTCOME OF ACTIVITIES ARE, WHICH MEANS WE
REALLY CARE A LOT ABOUT SOCIAL AND
ENVIRONMENTAL OUTCOMES WHEN WE THINK ABOUT BUSINESS AND
ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT, AND WE THINK WE
SHOULD LOOK AT RESILIENCY THE SAME WAY AS WELL.
RESILIENCY AS ECOLOGICAL RESILIENCY, BUT IT’S ALSO SOCIAL
RESILIENCY, THE ABILITY OF PEOPLE TO
BOUNCE, THE ABILITY OF PEOPLE TO RECOVER FROM A SHOCK OR A
PROBLEM. FRANKLY, IF YOU LOOK ACROSS MANY
OF THE RURAL REGIONS OF THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA, THEIR
ABILITY TO BOUNCE IS VERY LOW.
THEY’RE NOT THE RED RIVER BALL. AND I THINK WE SAW THAT IN THE
WAKE OF MANY OF THE NORTHERN CALIFORNIA WILDFIRES THAT
DISPLACED PEOPLE AND THE DIFFICULTY OF
GETTING THOSE PEOPLE BACK INTO THEIR HOMES BECAUSE THEY DID NOT
HAVE STRONG SOCIAL NETWORKS THAT
COULD HELP SUPPORT THEM IN THAT. SO THE SPECIFIC VULNERABILIT
VULNERABILITIES. ONE OF THEM IS AN AGING
POPULATION. MANY OF THE NORTHERN CALIFORNIA
COUNTIES HAVE BECOME RETIREMENT REGIONS FOR THE REMAINDER OF THE
STATE BECAUSE THEY’RE GENERALLY A LITTLE BIT CHEAPER TO LIVE IN.
ANOTHER ONE IS THE GEOGRAPHIC ISOLATION OF THE COMMUNITY.
SO WE THINK OF POVERTY IN CALIFORNIA AS AN URBAN OR AN
AGRICULTURAL FARM WORKER TREND, BUT THE
REALITY IS THAT MANY OF THE POOREST PLACES IN
CALIFORNIA ARE ACTUALLY RURAL COUNTIES WHERE PEOPLE ARE
GEOGRAPHICALLY ISOLATED, HAVE LOW INCOMES, AND HAVE LESS
ACCESS TO SERVICES AND AMENITIES, AND THEN
THAT IS REFLECTIVE IN PUBLIC HEALTH OUTCOMES AND OTHER
THINGS. ANOTHER DRIVER OF VULNERABILITY,
POOR CONNECTIVITY. I MENTIONED ALREADY SOCIAL
CONNECTIVITY, BUT ALSO TELECOMMUNICATIONS, BROADBAND
ACCESS, ABILITY TO COMMUNICATE.WE SAW RECENT
INCIDENTS WHERE IN WILDFIRE SITUATIONS CELL PHONES DIDN’T
WORK BECAUSE THE CELL PHONE TOWERS DIDN’T
HAVE SUFFICIENT BATTERY BACKUP OR THEY DIDN’T HAVE SUFFICIENT
CONNECTION. THERE ARE HUGE AREAS OF RURAL
CALIFORNIA THAT HAVE NO WI-FI COVERAGE.
ONE-THIRD OF THE RESIDENTS IN THE NORTHERN SIERRA ARE STILL ON
DIAL-UP INTERNET ACCESS, WHICH MEANS
IF TELEPHONE LINES GO OUT, IN ESSENCE, THEIR ABILITY TO BE
CONNECT EDCONNECTED IS DISRUPTED.
THIS IS A MAJOR DRIVER OF VULNERABILITY IN MANY RURAL
AREAS. FINALLY, AGING INFRASTRUCTURE.
SO WE HAVE A LOT OF ISSUES, AS WE SAW IN SOME OF THE RECENT
WILDFIRES, WITH THE INFRASTRUCTURE
BEING INSUFFICIENT FOR THE POPULATION AND THE DEMAND IN AN
EMERGENCY SITUATION. SO WHEN WE LOOK AT THESE
COMMUNITIES AND WE THINK ABOUT THEIR CONTEXT IN THE FOREST,
REALLY THE CASE THAT WE WOULD MAKE IS THAT
THERE’S AN INTRICATE LINK BETWEEN COMMUNITY AND ECONOMIC
VIABILITY, SUSTAINABILITY AND RESILIENCE,
AND FORESTS AND FOREST MANAGEMENT.
WE THINK THAT THERE ARE A LOT OF REALLY GOOD TRENDS THAT ARE
BEGINNING IN CALIFORNIA TO ADDRESS
THOSE ISSUES, BUT THEY’RE INSUFFICIENT AND NOT FAST
ENOUGH. IF WE LOOK AT THE CALIFORNIA
FOREST CARBON PLAN AND ITS IDENTIFICATION OF THE NEED TO
THIN ROUGHLY 1 MILLION ACRES A YEAR — I’M
SORRY. TO TREAT 1 MILLION ACRES A YEAR
OF FOREST IN CALIFORNIA WITH A PORTION OF THAT THROUGH THINNING
AND A PORTION OF THAT THROUGH
PRESCRIBED FIRE, AND WE LOOK AT WHERE WE ARE TODAY, WE ARE
NOWHERE NEAR THE SCALE THAT WE NEED TO GET TO
IN ORDER TO REDUCE RISK IN THESE COMMUNITIES.
AND THAT’S CLEARLY AN ISSUE. IF WE LOOK AT THE VOLUME OF
MATERIAL COMING OUT OF THE FOREST, SHOULD WE TREAT THEM
THAT WAY, WHICH THE RECENT CPUC FUNDED HIGH
HAZARD ZONE STUDY IDENTIFIED AS IN THE TENS OF MILLIONS OF TONS
OF MATERIAL, WE HAVE NO
INFRASTRUCTURE AND NO SYSTEM TO TREAT OR USE THAT MATERIAL IN
ANY WAY. REALLY UNLESS WE CREATE THAT
INFRASTRUCTURE OR A MARKET FOR THAT BIOMASS MATERIAL, IT WILL
EITHER DECOMPOSE.IT WILL GO INTO
LANDFILLS AND DECOMPOSE OR OPEN PILE BIRD EXACERBATING AIR
QUALITY ISSUES. THIS IS A REAL ISSUE THAT WE
NEED TO BE ADDRESSING. FINALLY, IF YOU LOOK AT THE COST
OF TREATING THAT LANDSCAPE, IT WILL COST SOMEWHERE IN THE AREA
OF $3 BILLION A YEAR.
THAT’S WHERE I GET TO SOLUTIONS BECAUSE THERE ARE ACTUALLY
SOLUTIONS TO THESE PROBLEMS WE NEED TO
BE IMPLEMENTING NOW. ONE OF THEM IS APPROACHES LIKE
THE SIERRA NEVADA CONSERVANCY AND THE CALIFORNIA-NEVADA TAHOE
CONSERVANCY ARE USING BOTH THROUGH THE TAHOE SIERRA
INITIATIVE AND THE SIERRA NEVADA CONSERVANCY’S
WATERSHED IMPROVEMENT PROGRAM, TO DO LARGE LANDSCAPE FOREST
ASSESSMENT, RESTORATION PLANNING, AND THEN TIE
THE MATERIAL IN THAT RESTORATION PLANNING TO LOCAL ECONOMIC AND
COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT OBJECTIVES TO
CREATE JOBS IN RURAL REGIONS IN ORDER TO ADDRESS FALLING AVERAGE
MEDIAN INCOME AND THE POVERTY ISSUE.
SO THIS ISSUE THAT WE CAN LINK NATURAL RESOURCE RESTORATION AND
CREATE A RESTORATION ECONOMY THAT
ACTUALLY CREATES JOBS IN RURAL REGIONS REALLY IS THE BIG
SOLUTION. ANOTHER SOLUTION IS THAT WE NEED
TO GET OFF THE PERIODIC BOOM AND BUST CYCLE OF FUNDING NATURAL
RESOURCE RESTORATION AND CLIMATE ADAPTATION SOLELY THROUGH BOND
MEASURES. NOW, WE HAVE A BOND MEASURE
COMING UP ON THE BALLOT. I WANT US ALL TO VOTE FOR IT.
BUT THE REALITY IS THIS IS A SERIOUS GLOBAL CRISIS.
IT’S A STATE CRISIS. AND IT NEEDS OUR ATTENTION, AND
TO GET THAT ATTENTION, IT NEEDS FUNDING.
WE REALLY THINK THAT, IN ADDITION TO BOND MEASURES TO
FUND NATURAL RESOURCE RESTORATION, THERE
SHOULD BE A STATEWIDE MOVEMENT TO BE INCREASING THE BUDGETS FOR
THE AGENCIES THAT ADDRESS THESE ISSUES,
MOST PARTICULARLY, THE NATURAL RESOURCES AGENCY.
THIS SHOULD BE IN OUR GENERAL FUND BUDGET.
IT’S THAT IMPORTANT A PROBLEM. FINALLY, I WANT TO END WITH A
QUICK STORY. WE SPENT A GOOD DEAL OF THE LAST
THREE YEARS WORKING ON STARTING AND KEEP RUNNING A BIOMASS
FACILITY IN THE NORTHERN SIERRA NEVADA.
I HAVE TO SAY IT’S ONE OF THE MOST DIFFICULT PROBLEMS I’VE
EVER HAD TO ADDRESS IN MY LIFE. THERE’S SO MUCH INTERCONNECTED
PUBLIC POLICY, LEGAL REGULATORY FRAMEWORK TO DEAL WITH.
AT TIMES IT IS ONE OF THE MOST DIFFICULT THINGS TO KIND OF WORK
IN THE COMMUNITY ON. BUT WHAT WE REALLY NEED IS
LEADERSHIP TO STAND UP BUSINESS MODELS THAT WILL BRING PRIVATE
SECTOR FUNDING TO SOLVING THIS PROBLEM.
ALTHOUGH I’M A BIG SUPPORTER OF INCREASING PUBLIC FUNDING, PUBLIC FUNDING
IS NEVER GOING TO BE ENOUGH.WE NEED TO CREATE A MODEL
FOR VALUE ADDED BUSINESSES TO BRING THIS MATERIAL OUT OF THE
FOREST. IT REPRESENTS A MARKET LEADER ON
OUR PART BECAUSE WE NEVER VALUE FOREST ECOSYSTEMS ENOUGH TO
ACTUALLY PAY FOR THE MANAGEMENT THEMSELVES.
SO WE GOT INTO THIS SITUATION BECAUSE OF A MARKET FAILURE, AND
WE’RE GOING TO NEED MARKET INTERVENTION TO GET OUT OF THIS
SITUATION. FOR US TO NOT RECOGNIZE THE
POINT THAT WE’RE GOING TO NEED TO FIND A USE FOR THIS MATERIAL
IN ORDER TO GET TO THE FUNDING LEVELS
THAT WE NEED TO RESTORE OUR FORESTS WOULD REALLY BE A BIG
MISTAKE. SO I AM AN ADVOCATE FOR
GOVERNMENT INTERVENING FOR STAND-UP MARKETS FOR VALUE ADDED
WOOD PRODUCTS, SO WE CAN BEGIN TO FOCUS ON THE
FOREST RESTORATION WE NEED TO GET TO TO ADDRESS THE ISSUE THAT
HUGH DESCRIBED.THANK YOU. NEW SPEAKER: SO WE’RE LUCKY IN
OUR STATE TO HAVE TEN CONSERVANCIES, WHICH ARE
ENTITIES THAT HELP US ACTUALLY STEWARD LANDS ACROSS
THE STATE. WE OBVIOUSLY KNOW THAT SIERRA
NEVADA CONSERVANCY, THE TAHOE CONSERVANCY, AND ON THOSE
CONSERVANCIES WE HAVE LOCAL ELECTED OFFICIALS,
WHO ARE REALLY IMPORTANT TO CONNECT STATE AGENCIES TO LOCAL
GOVERNMENTS.TODAY WE’RE VERY LUCKY TO HAVE WITH US STACY
CORLESS, WHO SERVED AS SUPERVISOR IN MONOCOUNTY.
WE’RE VERY LUCKY TO HAVE HER AS VICE CHAIR OF THE SIERRA NEVADA
CONSERVANCY BOARD. STACY? STACY?
NEW SPEAKER: THANK YOU SO MUCH FOR BEING HERE TODAY AND FOR
INCLUDING ME. SOMETIMES WE’RE NOT SURE
SACRAMENTO KNOWS THERE’S AN EAST SIDE TO THE SIERRA NEVADA.
I’M HERE TO TELL YOU A LITTLE BIT ABOUT OUR BEAUTIFUL CORNER
OF THE WORLD AND WHY IT’S IMPORTANT
FOR RESILIENCE IN THE SIERRA NEVADA. FIRST, A LITTLE LESSON.
BEAR WITH ME. I HAVE IT ON GOOD AUTHORITY THAT
MAYBE PEOPLE WHO WORK IN THIS BUILDING WEREN’T SURE HOW TO
PRONOUNCE OUR COUNTY’S NAME. SAY IT WITH ME, MONO.
OF COURSE, THIS IS AN IMAGE OF MONOLAKE, AND I THINK MONOLAKE
IS VERY SYMBOLIC OF SOME OF THE ISSUES WE’RE DEALING WITH AND
THE STATE OF AFFAIRS. THERE IS A STATE PARK.
THE MONOLAKE NATURAL RESERVE. U.S. FOREST SERVICE NATIONAL
SCENIC AREA. THIS REPRESENTS THE EASTERN
GATEWAY TO YOSEMITE NATIONAL PARK, JUST BELOW TIOGA PASS, AND
UNRELATED TO RECREATION, MONOLAKE IS ALSO
THE NORTHERN END OF THE CITY OF LOS ANGELES’ AQUEDUCT SYSTEM AND
THE SITE OF AN EPIC BATTLE OVER
WATER IN DECADES PAST. AS WE FIGURE OUT HOW TO STEWARD
THE SIERRA NEVADA IN THE ERA OF CLIMATE CHANGE, I THINK MONO
LAKE REPRESENTS A NEED FOR A SHIFT IN
THINKING AND AN APPROACH TO STOP FIGHTING, IF WE TALK TO L.A.
ABOUT THAT, AND REALLY START WORKING
TOGETHER ACROSS AGENCY BOUNDARIES.
AND MONO LAKE ALSO MAKES ME THINK OF MY FRIENDS, THE MONO
LAKE TRIBE, AND ANY DISCUSSION OF
STEWARDING THESE PLACES MUST ACKNOWLEDGE THE ORIGINAL
STEWARDS, THE INDIGENOUS PEOPLE WHO CONTINUE TO
ADVOCATE FOR THEM. THEY NEED TO BE INCLUDED IN
DECISION-MAKING. MONO COUNTY IS OVER 90% FEDERAL
PUBLIC LAND, MOST OF WHICH IS U.S. FOREST SERVICE.
PICTURED HERE IS MAMMOTH MOUNTAIN, ARGUABLY THE BEST SKI
AREA IN CALIFORNIA, IN MY OPINION, WHERE I
LIVE IN MY SUPERVISORIAL DISTRICT.
AND IT’S ON THE INYO NATIONAL FOREST.
THE INYO — AND THE INYO IS A HOT SPOT FOR RECREATION.
THERE ARE ALMOST 2,000 LAKES AND PONDS, 2,300 MILES OF RIVERS AND
STREAMS, 2,200 MILES OF TRAILS, AND NEARLY A MILLION ACRES OF
WILDERNESS AND OVER 200 MILES OF WILD AND SCENIC RIVERS.
FIVE CALIFORNIA COUNTIES CONTAIN PORTIONS OF THE INYO.
MONO COUNTY, FRESNO, AND TULARE. OVER 2 MILLION PEOPLE VISIT THE
FOREST TO RECREATE NATIONALLY AND THESE VISITORS SPENT JUST
OVER $600 MILLION.
MORE THAN HALF OF OUR VISITORS ARE CALIFORNIANS, AND THEY’RE
REPEAT VISITORS. SKIING, AS YOU SEE HERE — BY
THE WAY, THIS WAS A POWDER DAY JUST MONDAY.
THERE IS SNOW. SKIING IS A MAJOR CONTRIBUTOR.
MAMMOTH MOUNTAIN SEES 1.3 MILLION SKIER VISITS ANNUALLY,
WHICH REQUIRES SNOW, WHICH IS A LITTLE
WORRISOME AFTER HUGH’S PRESENTATION.
THE NUMBER OF VISITORS TO MONO COUNTY OVER THE LAST TEN YEARS
HAS INCREASED BY 14%, AND THE REVENUE
GENERATED BY THESE VISITS HAS INCREASED BY OVER 50%.
OBVIOUSLY, AS A LOCAL GOVERNMENT OFFICIAL, THAT MEANS MORE TAX
REVENUE, MORE FUNDING TO FIX OUR ROADS AND BRIDGES AND TAKE CARE
OF PEOPLE. SO RECREATION TRULY —
RECREATION ON PUBLIC LANDS, REALLY PUBLIC NATIONAL FOREST
LANDS, IS THE ENGINE DRIVING OUR ECONOMY.
OKAY. AND I HAVE TO START OUT THAT MY
BOYFRIEND, TOM WHEELER, SUPERVISOR, WILL WANT ME TO LET
YOU KNOW THIS IS IN MADEIRA COUNTY, NOT
MONO COUNTY. MAMMOTH MOUNTAIN IS ON THE
SIERRA CREST AND THE WATERS OF THE SAN JOAQUIN RIVER AND THE
OWENS RIVER. THIS IS RAINBOW FALLS.
IT’S ALL VERY BEAUTIFUL AND USEFUL.
ABOUT 1.4 MILLION ACRE FEED OF WATER PER YEAR COMES FROM THE
INYO OR OVER 464 BILLION GALLONS.
THE INYO NATIONAL FOREST STOWS 58 METRIC TONS OF CARBON IN ITS
FOREST. THIS IS RAINBOW FALLS, A VERY
POPULAR HIKE. HIKING IS THE NUMBER ONE SUMMER
ACTIVITY FOR OUR VISITORS IN MONO COUNTY, ALONG WITH FISHING.
THANK YOU TO THE FISH AND GAME COMMISSION FOR KEEPING OUR
FISHING SEASON EXTENDED INTO NOVEMBER.
WE APPRECIATE THAT BECAUSE VISITATION PATTERNS ARE CHANGING
IN MONO COUNTY. WE SEE MORE AND MORE PEOPLE
COMING TO OUR AREA IN THE FALL TO SEE THE BEAUTIFUL FALL COLORS
AND FISH THROUGH NOVEMBER.
THIS IS ALL VERY BEAUTIFUL AND WONDERFUL, AND THERE ARE MAJOR
THREATS AND CHALLENGES WITH CLIMATE
CHANGE AND FIRE IS THE MAIN ONE. IN 2018, THIS IS THE LIONS FIRE.
LIGHTNING CAUSED WILDFIRE THAT HAD AN UNPRECEDENTED IMPACT ON
MONO COUNTY AND ESPECIALLY MAMMOTH
LAKE.ALSO REALLY FOR US IN MAMMOTH, OUT IN THE FOREST IN
THE JOHN MUIR WILDERNESS, AS THE CROW FLIES,
THIS WAS ONLY ABOUT NINE MILES FROM OUR TOWN AND THE PREVAILING
WINDS BLOWING IN THE TOWN’S DIRECTION FROM THE FIRE.
IT REALLY GOT US THINKING ABOUT FOREST HEALTH ISSUES.
A DEVASTATING FIRE SEASON OF 2018 SAW A DROP IN TRANSIENT
OCCUPANCY TAXES THAT WE COUNT ON AND ALSO
VISITATION, ESPECIALLY WITH THE CLOSURE FOR SEVERAL WEEKS OF
YOSEMITE NATIONAL PARK AND TIOGA PASS
DUE TO THE FERGUSON FIRE. THE OTHER THING WE CAN COUNT ON
IN CLIMATE CHANGE IS EXTREMES. FEBRUARY 2019 SAW THE MOST SNOW
EVER RECORDED ON MAMMOTH MOUNTAIN, AND THEN THIS FEBRUARY
THE LEAST, WHICH WAS ZERO.
HOW DO WE PLAN? AS LOCAL GOVERNMENT PREPARE A
MESSAGE TO OUR VISITORS AND CONSIDER PUBLIC HEALTH IMPACTS
BOTH FOR VISITORS AND RESIDENTS?
THE OTHER MAJOR CHALLENGE, STEVE MENTIONED THIS, INFRASTRUCTURE.
HERE IS A HOST OF PROBLEMS WE’VE ENCOUNTERED OVER THE LAST COUPLE
OF YEARS. DAMAGE FROM EXTREME WEATHER
EVENTS. PRESSURE FROM INCREASED
VISITATION, AND DEFERRED MAINTENANCE.
FOREST SERVICE MAINTENANCE HAS A NATIONAL SERVICE BACKLOG OF OVER
$5 BILLION. $3 BILLION OF THAT IS ROADS.
WHEN WE TALK ABOUT ACCESS TO PUBLIC LANDS, ROADS ARE KIND OF
A BASIC BUILDING BLOCK, AND THE AGENCY
DOES NOT HAVE THE MONEY TO MANAGE THE ROAD NETWORK.
AT THE SAME TIME, I’M SURE YOU’VE ALL HEARD THIS WITH THE
AGENCIES, BUDGETS HAVE INCREASED FOR
FIRE, AND EVEN THOUGH THERE’S NOW A FIX FOR FOREST SERVICE
FIRE BORROWING, THERE’S STILL A MAJOR LACK
OF FUNDING AND CAPACITY THAT IMPACTS RECREATION AND TOURISM
ON PUBLIC LANDS. I JUST GOT THIS STATISTIC LAST
WEEKEND. A 45% DECREASE IN NATIONAL
FOREST SYSTEM MANAGEMENT CAPACITY OVER THE LAST 25 YEARS.
BASICALLY HALF AS MUCH THE ABILITY TO MANAGE THESE LANDS
WHILE VISITATION IS INCREASING. SO WHAT ARE WE GOING TO DO?
WE’RE GOING TO ROLL UP OUR SLEEVES AND GET TO WORK
TOGETHER. TOGETHER: THIS IS A PARTNERSHIP
IN LOCAL GOVERNMENT AND MANAGERS IN MONO, INYO, AND HUMBOLDT
COUNTIES.AND THESE ARE TWO FORESTS IN TWO DIFFERENT
REGIONS, SO THEY’RE MANAGED BY TWO DIFFERENT OFFICES.
SO IT’S A BIG DEAL. WE’RE CROSSING BOUNDARIES.
WE STARTED THIS IN 2017, REALLY WITH THE TOWN OF MAMMOTH, THE
COUNTY, AND THE INYO TO ADDRESS IMMEDIATE CAPACITY AND
INFRASTRUCTURE NEEDS. BASIC THINGS LIKE BATHROOMS AND
DUMPSTERS AT TRAIL HEADS AND POPULAR RECREATION SITES.
IT’S EVOLVED INTO A FORMAL PARTNERSHIP FOCUSED ON KEEP
ADDRESSING THESE IMMEDIATE NEEDS IN THE
FUTURE WHICH IS WHERE THE SIERRA NEVADA CONSERVANCY COMES IN.
LAST YEAR THE TOWN OF MAMMOTH LAKES, ACTING ON BEHALF OF OUR
RECREATION PARTNERSHIP, WAS AWARDED
THE GRANT FOR THE EASTERN SIERRA SUSTAINABLE TOURISM AND
RECREATION INITIATIVE. THIS WAS FUNDED WITH PROPOSITION
68 FUNDS AS PART OF SNC’S VIBRANT TOURISM AND RECREATION
STRATEGIC GOAL, RECOGNIZING THAT FOREST
HEALTH ISSUES AND THE HEALTH OF LOCAL ECONOMIES ARE INTERTWINED.
SO WHAT THIS INITIATIVE IS GOING TO DO IS BRING PEOPLE TOGETHER
TO FIND SOLUTIONS. THERE ARE FOUR COMPONENTS, AND
THIS IS AN IMAGE FROM OUR KICKOFF MEETING IN BISHOP BACK
IN OCTOBER. THE FIRST IS REGIONAL RECREATION
STAKEHOLDER ENGAGEMENT. IN ADDITION TO THIS MEETING,
WE’RE HOLDING 11 OTHER COMMUNITY MEETINGS IN THE THREE COUNTIES
OVER THE NEXT YEAR, BRINGING PEOPLE
TOGETHER TO IDENTIFY CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES ON THE PUBLIC
LANDS IN THEIR BACKYARD.
THE SECOND PART OF IT IS CLIMATE ADAPTATION.
THIS WILL PRODUCE A REPORT DOCUMENTING THE VALUE OF SIERRA
NEVADA’S NATURAL RESOURCE CAPITAL AND
OUTDOOR RECREATION ECONOMY. GOT A LITTLE PUSHBACK ON THIS.
PEOPLE DON’T NECESSARILY LIKE THE IDEA, HOW MUCH IS MT.
WHITNEY WORTH? HOW CAN YOU PUT A DOLLAR VALUE
ON THIS? WE NEED TO QUANTIFY THIS —
QUANTIFY THESE THINGS IN ORDER TO PROTECT THEM?
THE THIRD COMPONENT IS CONNECTING TO THE EASTERN SIERRA
VISITOR AUDIENCE. THIS REALLY SPEAKS TO YEARS OF
OVER TOURISM AND THE NEED FOR DESTINATION MANAGEMENT.
SO HELPING PEOPLE BE — EVEN OUR VISITORS BE BETTER STEWARDS OF
THE LAND. SO WE’LL DEVELOP TOOLS NECESSARY
TO EFFICIENTLY AND EFFECTIVELY COMMUNICATE WITH OUR REGION’S
OUTDOOR RECREATION AUDIENCE. WE’RE GOING TO HAVE AN EMPHASIS
ON ENSURING THIS IS DONE THROUGH THE LENS OF DIVERSITY, EQUITY,
AND INCLUSION.FINALLY, THE FOURTH
COMPONENT IS PROJECT DEVELOPMENT AND PRIORITIZATION FOR FUNDING.
OUT OF THOSE STAKEHOLDER MEETINGS, WE’RE GOING TO HAVE A
LIST OF PROJECTS ACROSS THE REGION FROM
LOAN PINE UP TO MARKLIVILLE. THATS A LOT.
I DON’T KNOW HOW MANY MILES. THAT’S A LOT OF TERRITORY TO
COVER. THIS EFFORT WILL THEN GET THOSE
PROJECTS TO A PLACE WHERE THEY’RE ELIGIBLE FOR FUNDING,
INCLUDING PROJECT DEVELOPMENT AND
TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE. AT THE SAME TIME, WE’RE DOING
ALL THAT PLANNING, HONESTLY, WE’RE JUST ROLLING UP OUR
SLEEVES AND GETTING TO WORK.
WE HAVE A COUPLE FOREST MANAGEMENT PROJECTS FUNDED BY
SIERRA NEVADA CONSERVANCY THAT IMPROVE
HEALTH, FOREST HEALTH, COMMUNITY SAFETY, AND RECREATION ACCESS IN
PLACES LIKE THE MAMMOTH LAKES BASIN AND
JUNE MOUNTAIN SKI AREA. WE’RE ENGAGING WITH
NONGOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS, SOME ARE PICTURED HERE, TO BUILD
VOLUNTEER AND PROFESSIONAL CAPACITY.
OTHER EFFORTS OUTSIDE OUR RECREATION PARTNERSHIP INCLUDE
TRANSPORTATION. I’M ON THE BOARD, ALONG WITH MY
FRIEND TOM WHEELER, ON THE YOSEMITE AREA REGIONAL
TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM.THIS IS TRYING TO GET
PEOPLE OUT OF THEIR CARS AND USING PUBLIC TRANSIT TO GET TO
YOSEMITE NATIONAL PARK FROM GATEWAY
COMMUNITIES. ALSO OFFERS ACCESS TO ADJACENT
PUBLIC LAND. YARTS RECENTLY GOT AN AWARD TO
BEGIN TO ELECTRIFY ITS FLEET. WHEN I STARTED ON THE BOARD,
THERE WEREN’T ELECTRIC BUSES THAT COULD DRIVE THROUGH
YOSEMITE AND HANDLE THE ROAD CONDITIONS UP
THERE. SO THINGS ARE MOVING QUICKLY.
YARTS ALSO HAS SECURED FUNDING TO PROVIDE PUBLIC ACCESS FROM
URBAN AREAS LIKE FRESNO AND MERCED ON
FEE FREE DAYS, SO PEOPLE CAN GET ON THE BUS IN THE CITY FOR FREE
AND EXPERIENCE THE NATIONAL PARK WITHOUT HAVING TO DRIVE. WE’RE ALSO LOOKING AT IMPROVING
WILDLIFE HABITATS SPECIFICALLY. THIS IS A BIG PART OF TOURISM
RECREATION AS WELL. PEOPLE LOVE ANIMALS.
WE’RE TRYING TO PROTECT THEIR HABITAT IN THE FACE OF CLIMATE
CHANGE. WOVE A BIG PROJECT THAT WOULD
CREATE A WILDLIFE CORRIDOR AND WILDLIFE CROSSING, ACROSS
HIGHWAY 395 JUST SOUTH OF MAMMOTH, BUT WE
NEED MONEY. SO WORKING TOWARD A FUTURE WITH
SNOW AND MAINTAINING OUR TOURISM AND RECREATION ECONOMY MEANS
GROWING AND DIVERSIFYING OUR BASE AND THE WORK FORCE.
WE’VE GOT TO CREATE THE NEXT GENERATION OF STEWARDS.
THIS WORK NEEDS TO BE DIFFERENT. IT’S GOT TO BE ALL HANDS.
IT’S GOT TO BE ACROSS AGENCY BOUNDARIES AND RESILIENCE ISN’T
FOREST HEALTH OR RECREATION. IT ISN’T URBAN OR RURAL.
IT’S EVERYTHING AND EVERYONE. SO WE NEED YOUR HELP.
LIKE STEVE, LOOK, I’M A COUNTY SUPERVISOR.
I CANNOT COME TO SACRAMENTO AND NOT ASK FOR MONEY.
WE NEED FUNDING. WE NEED THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA
INVOLVED IN CARING FOR OUR PUBLIC LANDS.
WE’RE OFF TO A GREAT START WITH FOREST HEALTH PROJECTS, BUT
LET’S CONTINUE. WE’RE ALL CONNECTED, AND WE’RE
ALL IN IT TOGETHER. THANK YOU.
[ APPLAUSE ] NEW SPEAKER: THANK YOU SO MUCH.
IN CALIFORNIA, WE ARE VERY LUCKY TO HAVE THE PUBLIC POLICY
INSTITUTE OF CALIFORNIA AND ITS WATER
CENTER.THAT REALLY IS AN INDEPENDENT VOICE OF IDEAS AND
INSIGHTS THAT ARE HELPING GUIDE OUR POLICY
HERE IN THE AGENCY AND THE STATE.
SO WE’RE PLEASED TO HAVE HENRY McCANN FROM PTSE WATER CENTER TO
SHARE WITH US SOME OF THE RESEARCH
YOU’VE DONE ON CONSTRUCTIVE SOLUTIONS TO SOME OF THE
CHALLENGES WE’VE HEARD HERE TODAY.
[ APPLAUSE ] NEW SPEAKER: THANK YOU FOR THAT
KIND INTRODUCTION. MY PRESENTATION TOUCHES ON THE
ASPECT OF THE PRESENTATIONS YOU JUST HEARD.
IT SORT OF PACKAGES IT A LITTLE BIT DIFFERENTLY.
SO BEAR WITH ME HERE. THE MIXED CONIFER FOREST REALLY
CHANGED OVER TIME. SO FORESTS THAT WERE ONCE FINE
GRAINED MOSAICS OF DIFFERENT TREE DENSITIES, AGES, SIZES, AND SPECIES HAVE BECOME OVERLY DENSE
AND VASTLY SIMPLIFIED IN STRUCTURE.
THE EXCLUSION OF INDIGENOUS BURNING PRACTICES, EARLY TIMBER
HARVEST PRACTICES, AND AGGRESSIVE FIRE
SUPPRESSION HAVE ALL CONTRIBUTED TO THIS.
SO FOREST TODAY NOW HAVE MORE SMALL DIAMETER TREES, FEWER
LARGE TREES, AND FEWER OPENINGS. AND THE CONSEQUENCES OF THOSE
STRUCTURAL CHANGES INCLUDE THINGS LIKE MORE LARGE SEVERE
WILDFIRE AND INCREASED VULNERABILITY TO
DROUGHT AND PESTS. SO THE OVERALL MANAGEMENT
FRAMEWORK IDEA IS TO ESTABLISH AND MAINTAIN SOME OF THE
STRUCTURAL CHARACTERISTICS OF PRE-EUROPEAN
FORESTS THAT MADE THEM MORE RESILIENT TO THESE DISTURBANCES.
SO THIS ENTAILS USING TOOLS LIKE MECHANICAL THINNING, PRESCRIBED
FIRE, AND MANAGED WILDFIRE TO CREATE MORE VARIATION IN TREE
DENSITIES AND OPENINGS AND TREE SIZES.
THIS IS WHAT WE MEAN WHEN WE TALK ABOUT IMPROVING FOREST
HEALTH, AND THE FOREST MANAGEMENT
LITERATURE SUGGESTS THAT THIS APPROACH NEEDS TO BE EXPAND ED
EXPANDED VASTLY IN TERMS OF PACE AND SCALE IN
ORDER TO ACHIEVE THE FOREST HEALTH OBJECTIVES THAT WE HAVE
AS A STATE. IMPROVING FOREST HEALTH CAN ALSO
SUPPORT THE WELL-BEING OF RURAL COMMUNITIES, REDUCE IMPACTS ON
PUBLIC HEALTH, STORE CARBON AND REDUCE GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS
FROM WILDFIRES, PROTECT WATER QUALITY,
AND INCREASE WATER SUPPLY. THE PPIC SET OUT TO DO A
THOROUGH INVESTIGATION EVALUATION OF THE SCIENTIFIC
LITERATURE TO GAIN A CLEAR UNDERSTANDING OF THESE
BENEFITS. THE FINDINGS OF THAT RESEARCH
WILL BE PUBLISHED IN A REPORT IN MID-APRIL, AND THE FINDINGS ARE PREVIEWED TODAY IN THIS
PRESENTATION. IMPORTANT TO NOTE THIS IS NOT
THE EXHAUSTIVE LIST OF BENEFITS OF IMPROVING FOREST HEALTH.
RATHER WE DELIBERATELY CHOSE TO FOCUS ON BENEFITS THAT WERE
QUANTIFIABLE AND MORE EASILY MONETIZED
AS A WAY TO MOTIVATE LONG-TERM FOREST STEWARDSHIP EFFORTS AT
SCALE. EXPANDING FOREST HEALTH
TREATMENTS CAN STIMULATE FOREST MANAGEMENT AND WOOD UTILIZATION
FACTORS, WHICH CAN CREATE ECONOMIC GROWTH
AND DEVELOPMENT. AS YOU HEARD FROM STACY, HEALTHY
FORESTS CAN ALSO HELP AVOID LARGE WILDFIRES AND SMOKE
DISRUPTIONS TO TOURISM ON WHICH MANY OF
THESE COMMUNITIES DEPEND ON. IN ADDITION, WHEN APPLIED AT
LANDSCAPE SCALE, FOREST MANAGEMENT CAN DECREASE THE
WILDFIRE RISK TO COMMUNITIES.SO IT’S IMPORTANT TO
CONSIDER, THOUGH, THAT MANY OF THESE COMMUNITIES CURRENTLY LACK
THE INFRASTRUCTURE AND WORK FORCE TO
VASTLY EXPAND FOREST MANAGEMENT OPERATIONS.
SO TARGETED INVESTMENTS IN THOSE AREAS WILL BE NEEDED TO SUSTAIN
HIGHER LEVELS OF FOREST MANAGEMENT
AND TO REALIZE LOCAL ECONOMIC BENEFITS OVER TIME.
IN ADDITION, FOREST MANAGEMENT ALONE ISN’T DEFICIENT FOR THE
FULL COMMUNITY WILDFIRE RESILIENCE
PICTURE. THIS ALSO INCLUDES THINGS LIKE
HOME HARDENING AND PROVISIONS FOR DEFENSIBLE SPACE AND SAFETY
PLANNING.THE RESEARCH LITERATURE TELLS US THAT PROACTIVE FOREST
MANAGEMENT IS REALLY THE KEY TO AVOIDING
ACUTE WILDFIRE SMOKE ISSUES OVER THE LONG TIME.
THE RESEARCH ALSO TELLS US THAT LOW AND MODERATE SEVERITY
WILDFIRES POSE LESS OF A RISK TO PUBLIC
HEALTH COMPARED TO LARGE, UNCONTROLLED WILDFIRES.
THE TOOLS AT OUR DISPOSAL, INCLUDING PRESCRIBED BURNING AND
MANAGED WILDFIRE, ARE SOLUTIONS FOR
RELEASING THE SMOKE IN A MORE CONTROLLED WAY.
SO THE APPLICATION OF THOSE TOOLS TO FORESTS THAT HAVE BEEN
INCREASING IN THEIR DENSITY OVER TIME
IS GOING TO PRODUCE A LOT OF SMOKE.
IN ADDITION, THESE TOOLS ARE GOING TO BE USED TO MAINTAIN
HEALTHY FOREST CONDITIONS OVER A LONG
PERIOD OF TIME. ONE OF THE CONSEQUENCES OF THAT
COULD BE FREQUENT BUT LESS CONCENTRATED SMOKE IN THE
HEADWATER REGION OVER TIME.
ALSO, COMPARED TO PRESCRIBED BURNING AND MANAGED WILDFIRE,
MECHANICAL THINNING ALONE HAS NO SMOKE
IMPACT.HOWEVER, THESE TOOLS ARE OFTEN USED IN COMBINATION. THE PROLIFERATION OF SMALL TREES
IN THESE FORESTS HAS INCREASED FOREST CARBON IN THE REGION OVER
TIME, BUT IT’S ALSO MADE FORESTS MORE VULNERABLE TO WILDFIRES,
DROUGHTS, AND PESTS, AND THE RESEARCH
TELLS US THAT FOREST MANAGEMENT THAT CHANNELS GROWTH INTO LARGE,
FIRE RESISTANT TREES, IS A WAY OF
INCREASING THE DURABILITY OF FOREST CARBON AND LIMITING
GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS FROM WILDFIRES OVER
TIME.SO CALIFORNIA NEEDS TO CONTINUE REFINING AND IMPROVING
THE METHODS THAT IT USES FOR MEASURING
FOREST CARBON OVER TIME GIVEN THE IMPORTANT ROLE THAT CARBON
PLAYS IN OUR PUBLIC POLICY DISCUSSIONS,
AND IN ADDITION IT’S IMPORTANT TO RECOGNIZE THE DIFFERENT
MANAGEMENT TOOLS HAVE DIFFERENT CARBON
PROFILES.FOR EXAMPLE, THE MECHANICAL THINNING HAS THE
ADDITIONAL OPPORTUNITY — HAS ADDITIONAL CARBON
SEQUESTRATION OPPORTUNITIES THROUGH LONG LASTING WOOD
PRODUCTS THAT STRATEGIC USE OF FIRE DOES NOT.
HEAVY RAINS FOLLOWING LARGE SEVERE WILDFIRES CAN WASH
SEDIMENT AND DEBRIS INTO STREAMS.
THIS CAN DAMAGE AND IMPAIR WATER MANAGEMENT INFRASTRUCTURE,
HYDROPOWER ELECTRIC PRODUCTION EQUIPMENT, AND IT CAN HARM
ECOSYSTEMS. THE 2014 KING FIRE IS AN
ILLUSTRATION OF THOSE DAMAGES AND THOSE COSTS, AND IT’S REALLY
A WAKEUP CALL IN MANY WAYS.
IT’S IMPORTANT TO CONSIDER THAT THE BACKBONE OF THE STATE’S
SURFACE WATER INFRASTRUCTURE, WHICH ARE
THE LARGE FOOTHILL RESERVOIRS, ARE SOMEWHAT BUFFERED FROM
POST-FIRE EROSION BY SMALLER UPSTREAM
RESERVOIRS THAT ARE EFFECTIVE AT CAPTURING SEDIMENT AND DEBRIS
BEFORE THIS FLOWS DOWNSTREAM. THIS IS AN IMPORTANT — THIS
CATCHMENT EFFECT IS AN IMPORTANT CONSIDERATION WHEN THINKING
ABOUT THREATS FROM POST-FIRE EROSION.
ALSO, EACH TRIBUTARY IS UNIQUE AND AT DIFFERENT LEVELS OF
POST-FIRE EROSION THREATS AND VULNERABLE
ASSETS.PRELIMINARY RESEARCH TELLS US THAT THINNING FORESTS
REDUCES THE WATER DEMANDED BY TREES AND
CAN THEREFORE INCREASE THE AMOUNT OF STREAM FLOW IN SOME OF
THE WET ERR TRIBUTARIES IN THE RANGE OF
6 TO 14% BASED ON THE RESEARCH. SOME RESEARCH ALSO TELLS US THAT
MANAGING FOR LOWER DENSITY FORESTS MAY ACTUALLY ENHANCE OUR
ABILITY TO STORE SNOW PACK IN TERMS OF ACCUMULATION AND DELAY
THE MELTING OF SNOW PACK. IT’S IMPORTANT TO RECOGNIZE,
THOUGH, THESE BENEFITS ARE CONTINGENT ON FOREST STRUCTURE,
AND AS FORESTS GROW PACK, THESE
BENEFITS DIMINISH OVER TIME. ALSO, BASED ON THE SMALL
FOOTPRINT OF EXISTING RESEARCH AND THE RELATIVELY SHORT TIME OF
THE RESEARCH STUDIES THAT SUPPORT
THESE BENEFITS MAKES IT DIFFICULT TO EXTRAPOLATE THESE
FINDINGS TO LARGER SPATIAL AND TEMPORAL SCALES.
HEALTHY FORESTS BUILD REGIONAL AND STATEWIDE RESILIENCE.
MANAGING FORESTS IS THE KEY TO INCREASING THE RESILIENCE OF
THESE FORESTS TO CURRENT AND FUTURE
STRESSORS FROM WILDFIRE, DROUGHT, AND PESTS, AND
IMPROVING FOREST HEALTH GENERATES A BROAD ARRAY OF
BENEFITS TO THE REGION AND THE STATE.
THIS INCLUDES AVOIDING FUTURE COSTS.
IT INCLUDES MAINTAINING IMPORTANT FOREST AND
WATERSHED FUNCTIONS AND IMPROVING THESE FUNCTIONS AS
WELL. THE NEXT STEP IS TAKING THE
UNDERSTANDING OF BENEFITS AND BENEFICIARIES AND INTEGRATING IT
INTO THE NEXT FINANCIAL POLICY AND
GOVERNANCE SOLUTIONS THAT ARE NEEDED TO ACCOMPLISH THIS HEAVY
LIFT THAT’S IN FRONT OF US.
IT’S VERY EXCITING TO SEE ALL OF THE ENERGY BEING PUT INTO THIS
AREA, AND THIS EVENT TODAY IS CERTAINLY A TESTAMENT TO THAT.
WE LOOK FORWARD TO CONTINUING TO REFINE AND DEVELOP POLICY
SOLUTIONS IN THIS AREA. SO THANK YOU. [ APPLAUSE ] NEW SPEAKER: WHAT WE’LL DO NOW
IS TAKE UP THE SCREEN AND ASK OUR PANELISTS, ALONG WITH ANGIE
AVERY, DIRECTOR OF THE SIERRA NEVADA
CONSERVANCY. SO COME ON UP.
I WANT TO TURN IT OVER TO QUESTIONS IN JUST A MOMENT.
FIRST, I WANT TO ASK A QUESTION ABOUT FUNDING.
OBVIOUSLY, FUNDING IS IMPORTANT TO ACHIEVE THIS FOREST HEALTH
INITIATIVE THAT WE TALKED ABOUT HERE
TODAY. IT SEEMS LIKE THERE IS AT LEAST
SOME BROAD SUPPORT FOR THOSE TYPES OF ACTIVITIES.
STEVE, YOU MENTIONED IT’S NOT JUST ABOUT PUBLIC MONEY.
WE HAVE TO FIGURE OUT WAYS TO SORT OF BRING ECONOMIC
ACTIVITIES BACK INTO TAKING SOME OF THE FOREST
MATERIAL OUT IN ECOLOGICALLY SENSITIVE WAYS.
IF YOU HAD A MAGIC WAND OR YOU WERE GOVERNOR FOR A DAY, HOW
WOULD YOU DO THAT? NEW SPEAKER: WHAT A GOOD
QUESTION. IT IS ABOUT BRIDGING, I THINK,
PRIVATE DOLLARS TO MOVE MATERIAL AND USE IT IN OTHER WAYS. IT’S GOING TO TAKE US FIVE OR
TEN YEARS TO GET TO THAT MATERIAL MANUFACTURE AND
DISTRIBUTION IN MARKET.I THINK THE MOST
EFFECTIVE USE OF PUBLIC DOLLARS WOULD BE TO PRIME THE PUMP FOR
CREATING THE PRIVATE FUNDED SPACES THAT
CREATE DEMAND ON THOSE PRODUCTS TO PULL THE MATERIAL OUT OF THE
FOREST. AND THAT’S, WHEN I WAS TALKING
ABOUT A MARKET FAILURE, THAT’S WHAT I WAS REFERRING TO. WE USE THE PUBLIC POLICY TO MOVE
THE PRODUCTS TO OTHER AREAS, AND WE NEED TO BRING THEM BACK TO
THE STATE.
NEW SPEAKER: YOUR POINT IS PUBLIC INVESTMENT CAN PRIME THE
PUMP, CAN BE THE PERSON THAT WOULD
ATTRACT OTHER PRIVATE INVESTMENT.
NEW SPEAKER: YEAH. SO THE AMOUNT OF PUBLIC
INVESTMENT OVER TIME CAN DIMINISH AND BE USED FOR OTHER
PURPOSES. NEW SPEAKER: GOOD.
LET’S TURN TO FOCUSED QUESTIONS FROM OUR AUDIENCE HERE TODAY.
WHO HAS A QUESTION OR A THOUGHT? AND YOU’RE GOING TO GET A
MICROPHONE FOR THOSE WATCHING ON THE INTERNET.
NEW SPEAKER: THANK YOU. I’M TOM WEEDER FROM MADEIRA
COUNTY. NO ONE TALKED ABOUT THE FUEL
LOAD AND INSURANCE RATES GOING UP ACROSS THE STATE.
I THOUGHT THAT MIGHT BE BROUGHT UP.
JUST MINE ALONE, I GOT CANCELLED TWICE IN TWO YEARS.
IT WENT FROM $1,700 TO $4,700 FOR THE CALIFORNIA PLAN PLUS THE
SUPPLEMENT OF ANOTHER $1,000 TO SAFECO TO HALF ASS COVER WHAT I
HAVE. NEW SPEAKER: SO WHO WANTS TO
SUMMARIZE THE CHALLENGES OF CANCELLATION OF
POLICIES AND THE STATE PREMIUMS AND WHAT THE STATE
COULD DO ABOUT IT. [ LAUGHTER ]
I’LL JUMP IN THERE TOO. NEW SPEAKER: I WAS JUST GOING TO
SAY IN A QUICK WAY AND THEN HAND IT OVER TO STEVE THAT,
ABSOLUTELY, THIS IS THE DIMENSION OF THE RURAL COMMUNITIES THAT
CONTRIBUTES TO THE ECONOMIC DISTRESS OF MANY
RURAL COMMUNITIES. BASED ON MY UNDERSTANDING, AN
IMPORTANT PATH GOING FORWARD IS TRYING TO LINK FOREST MANAGEMENT
TO THIS PARTICULAR ISSUE.
I THINK THAT’S GOING TO BE A CHALLENGING THING TO DO GOING
FORWARD IN THE PUBLIC POLICY ARENA.
NEW SPEAKER: TOM, I SHARE YOUR PAIN.
I DON’T HAVE A SOLUTION. AT LEAST NOT YET.
BUT I THINK WE HAVE TO BE FOCUSING ON THIS.
FOR A VARIETY OF REASONS. A REASON THAT IS OFTEN NOT
THOUGHT ABOUT. NOT ONLY IS THIS AFFECTING THE
HOMEOWNER AND THE PROPERTY , MAKING IT MORE DIFFICULT TO
LIVE IN THE REGION.AND THEN IT WILL LEAD TO
A REDUCTION IN PROPERTY VALUE, THUS THE REDUCTION OF PROPERTY
TAX, AND THE REDUCTION IN THE ABILITY
OF LOCAL GOVERNMENT TO PROVIDE SERVICES.
SO WE NEED A PUBLIC POLICY APPROACH TO THIS THAT LOOKS, I
THINK, AT SOME KIND OF FOREST AND
WILDLAND URBAN INTERFACE MANAGEMENT TIED TO SOME KIND OF
CONSIDERATION ON THE PART OF THE INSURANCE
COMPANIES TO REDUCE INSURANCE RATES IN PLACES THAT ARE WELL
MANAGED. UNFORTUNATELY, THAT LEAVES SOME
PEOPLE OUT IN THE COLD WHILE YOU’RE GETTING THERE, AND THAT’S
A REALLY HARD SITUATION.
BUT WE HAVE TO START WORKING ON THIS.
NEW SPEAKER: THANKS, STEVE. I WOULD JUST ADD OUR STATE
INSURANCE COMMISSIONER AND HIS TEAM ARE REALLY FOCUSED ON THIS
TO REALLY TRY TO LINK ACTIONS THAT
COMMUNITIES AND RESIDENTS ARE TAKING TO PROTECT THEIR HOMES
WITH, ONE, BEING ABLE TO GET INSURANCE, AND
THEN REDUCING THE INSURANCE RATES.
AS I UNDERSTAND IT, PART OF THIS IS REALLY DOING THE BASE LEVEL
RESEARCH, YOU KNOW, IN PARTNERSHIP
WITH THE INSURANCE INDUSTRY SO THAT THEY, THE PRIVATE INSURANCE
INDUSTRY, CAN REALLY UNDERSTAND SORT
OF THE QUANTITATIVE BENEFIT BETWEEN THOSE MEASURES THAT
FOLKS TAKE TO PROTECT OUR COMMUNITIES AND
THE REDUCED RISK. OTHER QUESTIONS? SIR?
NEW SPEAKER: YOU MENTIONED YOU’RE WORKING ON A BIOMASS
FACILITY AND HAVE BEEN FOR SOME TIME.
WHAT WAS THE BIGGEST CHALLENGE YOU FACED IN ESTABLISHING THAT
BIOMASS FACILITY? WHAT WAS THAT PROCESS?
NEW SPEAKER: WE’RE PROVIDING TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE TO AN
EXISTING FACILITY. AND MY GREATEST SOURCE OF
FRUSTRATION. I LIVE NEXT TO THE SUPPLY.
I CAN WALK OUT AND SEE THE PILES OF FOREST BIOMASS IN THE FOREST
LESS THAN 30 MILES FROM THE BIOMASS FACILITY, AND WE CAN’T
GET THE MATERIAL TO THE FACILITY.
THE CASE I WOULD MAKE IS, YEAH, WE NEED LOTS OF LONG-TERM
PLANNING AND OTHER STUFF, BUT FOR GOD’S
SAKE, LET’S GET SOMEONE IN A POSITION OF KIND OF INFLUENCE TO
CREATE THE SYSTEM THAT GETS THE MATERIAL OUT OF THE FOREST SO WE
CAN START CREATING THESE MARKETS THAT WE NEED TO.
IT IS SUPPLY, MAN. THAT GETS MORE COMPLICATED WHEN
YOU TALK ABOUT PRICING AND OTHER THINGS, BUT NO ONE IS GOING TO
INVEST IN BIOMASS UTILIZATION UNLESS YOU CREATE A MARKET FOR
THE PRODUCT, AND YOU DON’T HAVE THE
PRODUCT UNLESS YOU HAVE SUPPLY. NEW SPEAKER: STEVE, I’VE LEARNED
ABOUT THESE LONG-TERM STEWARDSHIP AGREEMENTS THAT ARE
POSSIBLE THROUGH THE UNITED STATES FOREST
SERVICE, THAT CAN PROVIDE THAT SORT OF 20 YEARS OF EXPECTATION
AROUND MATERIAL THAT YOU COULD TAKE OUT
OF THE FOREST IN AN ECOLOGICAL SUSTAINABLE WAY.
DO YOU SEE THAT AS A POTENTIAL SOLUTION?
NEW SPEAKER: PERHAPS IN THE LONG RUN, BUT IF YOU TALK TO PRIVATE
INVESTORS, FOR EXAMPLE, SOMEONE WHO WANTS TO STAND UP A SMALL
DIAMETER DIAMETER, THEY NEED TO KNOW THEY
HAVE MATERIAL IN ORDER TO MARKET THEIR PRODUCT AND GET
THEIR INVESTMENT BACK. MSA BASICALLY IDENTIFIES THAT
THAT MATERIAL EXISTS, BUT IT DOESN’T GUARANTEE THE PRIVATE
INVESTOR THAT IT’S GOING TO BE AVAILABLE.
SO WE NEED THE NEXT STEP. I DON’T KNOW WHAT THAT IS YET.
I KNOW THERE ARE A LOT OF REALLY GOOD MINDS WORKING ON THAT, BUT
WE NEED THAT NEXT STEP. NEW SPEAKER: THAT’S HELPFUL.
THERE ARE A LOT OF GOOD MINDS WORKING ON IT IN STATE
GOVERNMENT. SIR, WE’RE GOING TO PASS THE
MICROPHONE TO YOU IN THE CENTER. NEW SPEAKER: I’M NOT GOING TO
WIN ANY POPULARITY CONTESTS FOR THIS QUESTION.
CLIMATE CHANGE IS CAUSING SEA LEVEL RISE.
WE’RE NOT TALKING ABOUT BUILDING HIGHER AND HIGHER — WELL, WE
ARE IN SOME PLACES, LIKE EVEN MANHATTAN.HIGHER AND HIGHER
LEVIES TO KEEP THE OCEAN OUT, BUT MOST PEOPLE NOW ARE STARTING
TO TALK ABOUT MANAGED RETREAT. YOU MIGHT SEE WHERE I’M HEADING.
DAMS ARE GOING TO FILL UP MUCH FASTER.
THE LIFETIME OF A DAM IS GOING TO GO FROM A FEW HUNDRED YEARS
TO LESS THAN A HUNDRED YEARS. WE’RE GOING TO TALK ABOUT
GETTING PEOPLE TO MOVE OUT OF THE FLOOD PLAINS IN THE NEXT FEW
DECADES. I WOULD LIKE TO SEE PEOPLE RUN
THE NUMBERS ON THE MAV OF CALIFORNIA WHERE
RESIDENTIAL DEVELOPMENT HAS GONE IN THIS PART OF
CALIFORNIA, WHICH IS NOT VERY SMART.
AT SOME POINT, WE HAVE TO FACE UP TO ARE THERE SOME AREAS THAT
WE DON’T WANT TO CONTINUE TO ALLOW
NEW DEVELOPMENT IN? YOU HAVE TO REMEMBER IT’S NOT
ENOUGH TO DO SOME FOREST CLEARING AND SOME FOREST
BURNING. YOU HAVE TO DO IT EVERY FIVE
YEARS, MORE OR LESS. NEW SPEAKER: IT’S A GOOD
QUESTION AND A HOT BUTTON ISSUE. NEW SPEAKER: I THINK STEVE
SHOULD ANSWER THAT ONE. NEW SPEAKER: EVERYONE NOT
ASSOCIATED WITH THE ACRONYMS, WE’RE TALKING ABOUT THE WILD
LAND URBAN INTERFACE, AND IS IT SMART TO
CONTINUE TO ENABLE DEVELOPMENT IN THESE HIGH HAZARD ZONES.
NEW SPEAKER: I DON’T KNOW THE ANSWER, BUT WE DO NEED TO
ADDRESS IT. NEW SPEAKER: YEAH, IT’S A GREAT
QUESTION. MAYBE TURN TO THE ELECTED
OFFICIAL. IF YOU COULD, TALK ABOUT THE
DYNAMICS BETWEEN LOCAL CONTROL AND STATE RESILIENCE.
NEW SPEAKER: YEAH. AS A NEW SPEAKER: WE HAVE IMMENSE
RESPONSIBILITY WITH LAND USE PLANNING.
WE HAVE TO DO A BETTER JOB AND WORK WITH THE STATE AND FIGURE
THIS OUT. I DON’T THINK THAT ANYBODY
WANTS, FROM A LOCAL GOVERNMENT PERSPECTIVE, WE DON’T
NECESSARILY WANT REGULATION PUSHED DOWN, BUT WE HAVE TO TAKE
RESPONSIBILITY AND BE GOOD PARTNERS WITH COMMUNITY HEALTH
AND — COMMUNITY SAFETY AND FOREST HEALTH.
JUST THE IDEA OF RETREAT, WE CAN’T — WE HAVE TO INVEST IN
THE SIERRA NEVADA, AND THAT INCLUDES THE
GATEWAY COMMUNITIES OF THESE PLACES, OF THESE FORESTS.
WE CAN’T SIMPLY RETREAT. WE NEED THE STEWARDS THERE.
SO WE NEED TO WORK TOGETHER. THE INYO NATIONAL FOREST IS
WORKING ON AN AGREEMENT WITH THE CITY OF LOS ANGELES DEPARTMENT
OF WATER AND POWER ON IMPROVING
INFRASTRUCTURE, NOT NECESSARILY THE IN COMMUNITIES, BUT ADJACENT
TO THE COMMUNITIES, AND WORKING ON
FOREST PROJECTS IN THE WILDLAND URBAN INTERFACE.
THAT’S THE TYPE OF THING THAT IS A GOOD SOLUTION THAT WILL GET US
WHERE WE NEED TO GO ALONG WITH GOOD LAND USE PLANNING.
NEW SPEAKER: I WOULD JUST ADD THERE IS SOME INTERESTING
POTENTIAL AROUND THE STATE AND LOCAL
GOVERNMENTS, PARTNERING TO UPDATE GENERAL PLANS.
SO GENERAL PLANS GUIDE A COMMUNITY’S FUTURE DEVELOPMENT,
AND IN A WAY IT’S ESSENTIALLY A CITY OR
COUNTY KIND OF IDENTIFIES HOW THEY’RE GOING TO GROW, WHERE
THEY’RE GOING TO GROW. ONE OF THOSE ELEMENTS IS A
SAFETY ELEMENT. SO CAL FIRE AND THE STATE FIRE
MARTIAL HAVE ACTUALLY BEEN PROVIDING TECHNICAL SUPPORT TO
LOCAL COMMUNITIES, BUILDING OUT THE
SAFETY ELEMENT OF THEIR GENERAL PLAN, TO REALLY HELP GUIDE
DEVELOPMENT. NOT IN A WAY THAT TAKES CONTROL
FROM COMMUNITIES, BUT THAT HELPS COMMUNITIES GUIDE THEIR OWN
DEVELOPMENT. NEW SPEAKER: AND ONE LAST
OBSERVATION ON THIS, WHICH IS THAT THERE’S A REASON WHY SOME
PEOPLE LIVE IN THE WUI.
IT’S CHEAPER. WE HAVE A HOUSING CRISIS IN
CALIFORNIA, AND RURAL COMMUNITIES HAVE A HOUSING
CRISIS AS WELL. IF WE ARE GOING TO MANAGE
RETREAT OR PLAN RETREAT, WE NEED TO LOOK AT SOME STRATEGY THAT
CREATES DISENSEINATIVES FOR DEVELOPMENT
IN THE WUI WHILE IT INCENTIVIZES DENSIFYING DEVELOPMENT IN RURAL
TOWN CENTERS IN ORDER TO MAKE THEM
MORE ECONOMICALLY VIABLE. BECAUSE IT IS NOT ACCEPTABLE TO
ESSENTIALLY GO OUT INTO RURAL COMMUNITIES AND SAY, YOU KNOW,
WHY DON’T YOU JUST NOT LIVE THERE
ANYMORE. WE DON’T WANT TO DEPOPULATE
RURAL AMERICA. WE WANT TO CREATE ECONOMIC
PROSPERITY IN RURAL AMERICA. WE NEED TO FIND A WAY TO DO BOTH
OF THESE THINGS AT THE SAME TIME.
NEW SPEAKER: WE’RE GOING TO TAKE ONE FINAL QUESTION AND THEN HAVE
SOME CONCLUDING REMARKS. SO SORRY. NEW SPEAKER: I THINK IT WAS
PROFESSOR CANES WHO SAID THE LONG RUN WAS A SERIES OF SHORT
RUNS. THROUGH THE EFFORTS OF MANY
PEOPLE, THAT BIOMASS PLANT DID PRODUCE FOR A TIME SMOKE OUT OF
THE STAN, WHICH I BELIEVE WOULD MEAN
WE GOT OUR REVOLUTION LAUNCHED. THERE IS NO LONGER SMOKE.
THE ENTERPRISE HAS FAILED. IT COULD HAVE BEEN PREDICTED
BACK WHEN IT WAS LAUNCHED. YOU CAN PENCIL OUT IN TERMS OF
WHAT A SET OF PROFITABLE — YOU KNOW, PROFIT SEEKING INDEPENDENT
INVESTORS COULD DO. I THINK IT WOULD BE A HUGE
MISTAKE TO THROW UP OUR HANDS AND SAY, WELL, WE’LL SOLVE THIS
IN THE LONG RUN.
THAT FACILITY IS THERE. THE WORK FORCE IS DISPERSING.
THEY’RE ANGRY, AND THEY FEEL CHEATED.
THE COMMUNITY, WHICH IS ONE OF THESE IMPOVERISHED RURAL
COMMUNITIES, IS HURTING AND FEELS THAT
NOBODY CARES. I DON’T LIVE IN THAT TOWN
ANYMORE. IT’S MY HOMETOWN.
IT’S ALSO MY NEIGHBORING TOWN. I HOPE THAT WE CAN TREAT THIS AS
A LEARNING EXPERIENCE AND CONTINUE TO TREAT THAT FACILITY
AS A PROTOTYPE FOR SOLVING THE
PROBLEM. AND ADDRESSING SOME OF THE
ERRORS MADE IN THE LAUNCH PROJECT YOU’VE BEEN INVOLVED IN,
AND I GUESS I HAND IT TO STEVE.
NEW SPEAKER: NO DOUBT. THERE WERE ERRORS IN THE LAUNCH
PROCESS BASED ON POOR CONTRACTING PRACTICES, I THINK,
BY THE DEVELOPER OF THE PROPERTY.
BUT I THINK WE HAVE TO ANSWER A BIGGER QUESTION HERE.
WE HAVE MILLIONS OF TONS OF MATERIAL IN OUR FOREST, AND WE
HAVE INFRASTRUCTURE LIKE THE FACILITY AT
LOYAL TON THAT’S CAPABLE OF TAKING A LOT OF THAT MATERIAL.
WHETHER MISTAKES WERE MADE OR NOT, WE DON’T WANT TO LOSE THAT
INFRASTRUCTURE. WE WANT TO MAKE THAT
INFRASTRUCTURE WORK BECAUSE THE COST OF STANDING THAT UP AGAIN
IS GOING TO BE TOO DIFFICULT TO OVERCOME. OUR ORGANIZATION’S FOCUS HAS
BEEN, FROM THE VERY BEGINNING, WITH BIOMASS UTILIZATION TO A
FACILITY IN ORDER TO IMPROVE FOREST
MANAGEMENT. WHOEVER MANAGES THAT FACILITY,
THAT’S WHAT OUR COMMITMENT IS. WE’LL CONTINUE TO PROVIDE
TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE TO THEM TO DO THAT.
BUT I THINK WE REALLY HAVE TO ANSWER THIS QUESTION IN
CALIFORNIA. HOW INVOLVED IS GOVERNMENT GOING
TO GET IN ESSENTIALLY STANDING UP INDUSTRY TO ADDRESS THIS
ISSUE? AND EVERYONE HAS BEEN AFRAID TO
ANSWER THAT QUESTION, QUITE FRANKLY.
ONE OF THE BIGGEST PROBLEMS IS I CAN SEE A
SOLUTION. NO ONE CAN CUT THE GORDONIAN
KNOT AND GET TO THAT SOLUTION. NO ONE HAS THE POLITICAL WILL TO
CUT THE GORDONIAN KNOT AND GET TO THAT SOLUTION.
WE’D BETTER GET THAT WILL BECAUSE WHAT HUGH LAID OUT IS A
VERY GRIM FUTURE FOR OUR REGION IF WE
DON’T GET THE POLITICAL WILL TO IMPLEMENT THE SOLUTION.
NEW SPEAKER: I THINK THAT’S REALLY WELL PUT, STEVE.
I WOULD RESPECTFULLY ADD, AS SOMEBODY WHO’S IN GOVERNMENT,
WORKING TO TRY TO FIGURE OUT OUR INTERVENTION, IT’S NOT CLEAR TO
ME EXACTLY WHAT IS THE MOST STRATEGIC INTERVENTION FOR
GOVERNMENT. WE ARE NOT — OUR CORE
COMPETENCE IN GOVERNMENT IS NOT STANDING UP INDUSTRY.
NOR IS IT PICKING WINNERS AND LOSERS ON TECHNOLOGY OR
DEVELOPERS. I AGREE.
WE NEED THE POLITICAL WILL TO REALLY TACKLE THE ISSUES AT
SCALE. THEN FRANKLY, WE NEED HELP ON
UNDERSTANDING WHAT IS THE MOST COST EFFECTIVE, APPROPRIATE ROLE
FOR STATE GOVERNMENT IN SORT OF
STANDING UP ITS ECONOMIC ACTIVITY THAT CAN BRING PRODUCT
OUT OF THE FOREST?WE COULD SPEND A LOT MORE
TIME ON THIS.
WE HAVE AN EXPERT PANELIST. WE’VE COME TO THE END OF OUR
DISCUSSION. I WANT TO ASK ANGIE, AS THE
EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR OF THE SIERRA NEVADA CONSERVANCY.
IF YOU COULD, SORT OF WRAP UP THE CONVERSATION.
WHAT HAVE YOU HEARD HERE, AND HOW WILL IT INFORM YOU, PATRICK,
AND THE TAHOE CONSERVANCY AND OTHERS
AS YOU GO ABOUT YOUR WORK? NEW SPEAKER: ABSOLUTELY. I’M HAPPY TO DO THAT.
WHAT I’VE HEARD HERE TODAY IS THE STUFF OF NIGHTMARES.
A LITTLE BIT TERRIFYING. NO, A LOT TERRIFYING, BUT ALSO A
LOT OF HOPE. WHEN I THINK ABOUT THE ROLE THAT
WE AS THE STATE CONSERVANCY, I THINK ABOUT OUR WATERSHED
IMPROVEMENT PROGRAM, WHICH WE HAVE DEVELOPED AND IMPLEMENTED
IN PARTNERSHIP BOTH WITH THE TAHOE CONSERVANCY
BUT ALSO WITH THE FOREST SERVICE, WHEN WE ORIGINALLY
FOUNDED THIS PROGRAM IN 2015. WHAT DROVE THAT IS LOOKING
AROUND THE REGION AND BEING TERRIFIED, THE STUFF OF
NIGHTMARES, DRIVING US TO SAY WE HAVE TO BE DOING
BUSINESS DIFFERENTLY. WE NEED TO BE THINKING ABOUT
POLICY IMPEDIMENTS, INFRASTRUCTURE
NEEDS, INCREASING INVESTMENT. THESE ARE THE THINGS THAT NEED
TO BE DRIVEN, AND HOW DO WE, AS THE STATE CONSERVANCY, KIND OF
DO THAT?SO WATERSHED IMPROVEMENT
WAS BORN, AND I SEE OUR ROLE REALLY AS A BRIDGE.
SO UNDERSTANDING AT THE LOCAL LEVEL, THE ENVIRONMENTAL,
SOCIAL, AND ECONOMIC NEEDS OF THE REGION
AND UNDERSTAND THE POLICY DISCUSSIONS THAT HAPPEN AT THE
STATE LEVEL AND BASICALLY TRYING TO BE AN
ADVOCATE IN BOTH DIRECTIONS TO EDUCATE PEOPLE IN REGION, WHAT’S
HAPPENING HERE, WHAT THE OPPORTUNITIES
ARE, AND WHAT — BASICALLY CONNECTING FOLKS IN REGION THE
OTHER WAY. WE THINK THAT’S WHAT THE
WATERSHED IMPROVEMENT PROGRAM DOES.
IT’S ACTUALLY THE HOPEFULLY SIDE OF WHAT WE HEARD.
THE FACT THAT NOT ALL HOPE IS LOST IS DRIVING THE PRESENTATION
THAT WILL FOLLOW THIS ONE. SO MY SHAMELESS PLUG.
WE’RE GOING TO BE PRESENTING A ROAD MAP TO RESILIENCE, A MODEL
FOR THE SIERRA NEVADA AT 2:00 THIS
AFTERNOON.WHAT THIS IS SORT OF THE EPITOME OF IS THE NEED FOR
BOLD THINKING, THE NEED TO BE ACTION
BASED, THE NEED TO BE SORT OF ORGANIZED IN REGIONAL
GEOGRAPHIES THAT CAN MAKE A DIFFERENCE.
BUT YOU NEED TO UNDERSTAND THE PEOPLE WHO LIVE THERE, WHAT
THEIR VALUES AND NEEDS ARE. WHAT THE NEEDS ARE ON A SPECIFIC
LANDSCAPE, AND HOW DO YOU ACTUALLY TAKE CONCRETE STEPS
THAT ARE HOLISTIC IN NATURE TO THE POINTS
THAT HENRY MADE. HOW DO WE KIND OF SHIFT TOWARDS
A RESTORATION ECONOMY THAT TAKES ALL OF THESE ASPECTS, THE NEEDS
OF A LANDSCAPE AND CREATE AN ACTION
PLAN THAT CREATES RESILIENCE. THAT’S WHAT WE’LL BE PRESENTING
THIS AFTERNOON. THIS IS US SORT OF HOLDING ONTO
THE HOPE AND NOT GIVING UP IN THE ROLE THAT WE SPECIFICALLY
PLAY. SO THANK YOU.
I WANT TO JUST THANK YOU VERY MUCH FOR HOSTING AND SORT OF
HIGHLIGHTING THE SIERRA NEVADA AS PART
OF YOUR SPEAKER SERIES. IT’S A REGION THAT’S CRITICAL TO
THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA, AND WE’RE DOING OUR BEST TO SORT OF
STEWARD IT IN MEANINGFUL AND POWERFUL WAYS.
IF I MAY INVITE THOSE OF YOU WHO ARE HERE TO JOIN US AGAIN AT
2:00, I’LL STOP MY SHAMELESS PLUG
THERE. NEW SPEAKER: GREAT.
THANK YOU. PLEASE JOIN ME IN THANKING OUR
PANELISTS. [ APPLAUSE ] IT’S CLEAR TO ANYBODY WHO
LISTENED TO THE PRESENTATIONS THAT THE CHALLENGES ARE
DAUNTING, AND THEY’RE REAL.
THE IMPACT OF CLIMATE CHANGE IS HERE.
IT’S ALSO VERY CLEAR THAT THERE ARE A LOT OF OPPORTUNITIES TO BUILD OUR RESILIENCE.
IF WE TAKE A MOMENT TO REFLECT ON WHAT RESILIENCE MEANS, IT
DOESN’T MEAN TO ADAPT. IT MEANS TO WEATHER THESE
IMPACTS AND CONTINUE TO THRIVE. I’M REALLY APPRECIATIVE.
THIS IS A GREAT EXAMPLE OF A FEDERAL, STATE, LOCAL
PARTNERSHIP WITH BUSINESS ORGANIZATIONS AND
RESEARCH INSTITUTIONS. IT’S REALLY GOING TO TAKE AN ALL
HANDS ON DECK APPROACH TO ACTUALLY SEIZE THESE
OPPORTUNITIES. LET ME SAY ALSO ON A NOTE OF
HOPE OUR NEXT SPEAKER SERIES WILL TAKE PLACE IN LATE APRIL
WHEN WE OBSERVE THE 50th ANNIVERSARY OF
EARTH DAY, AND WE’LL HAVE YOUTH LEADERS WHO ARE CLIMATE
ACTIVISTS WHO ARE REALLY DRIVING THE EFFORT TO
BUILD OUR RESILIENCE AND REDUCE CARBON POLLUTION.
I HOPE YOU’LL JOIN US IN LATE APRIL.
THANK YOU VERY MUCH FOR BEING HERE AND HAVE A GREAT DAY.

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